1,2-Dichloropropane

1,2-Dichloropropane

1,2-Dichloropropane Profile

INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS  KNOWN CARCINOGEN (IARC 1)

CAS No. 78-87-5
IARC Monograph Vol. 41, Suppl. 7, 1986 (Group 3)
IARC Monograph Vol. 71, 1999 (Group 3)
IARC Monograph Vol. 110, 2016 (Group 1)

1,2-Dichloropropane Profile

General Information

1,2-Dichloropropane (1,2-DCP), also known as propylene dichloride, is a colourless, flammable liquid that smells like chloroform. 1,2-DCP is used as a chemical intermediate to produce other organic compounds including perchloroethylene, propylene, carbon tetrachloride, and tetrachloroethylene.[1,2] Up until the 1980s in Canada, it was sold in a mixture with 1,3-dichloropropene as a soil fumigant (major trade names: D-D mixture®, Nemafene®, Vidden-D®).[3,4] It was also found in industrial solvents and paint strippers, varnishes, and furniture finish removers.[5]

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified 1,2-DCP as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1) in 2014.[1] Two studies examining exposure to 1,2-DCP in a Japanese printing plant in Osaka found an extremely high associated risk of a very rare bile duct cancer (17 of 111 workers were diagnosed).[6,7] IARC found that these two studies provided sufficient evidence for a causal association between 1,2-DCP and bile duct cancer.[1] Sufficient evidence for carcinogenicity was also reported in experimental animals, where malignant lung and liver tumors were observed in exposed mice.[1]

Acute exposure by intentionally or accidentally consuming or inhaling 1,2-DCP has resulted in dizziness, headache, nausea, injury to liver and kidneys, anemia, coma, and death.[3] Occupational exposures may lead to skin sensitization and dermatitis.[8]

Regulations and Guidelines

Occupational exposure limits (OEL) [9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23]

Canadian Jurisdictions OEL (ppm) Notes
Canada Labour Code 10 Follows ACGIH’s TLV-TWA; s
AB 10 TWA
BC 75
110
TWA; dsen
[stel]
NU, QC, SK 75
110
TWA
[stel]
MB, NL, NS, PE 10 Follows ACGIH’s TLV-TWA; s
NB 75
110
TWA
[stel]
Follows ACGIH’s 1994 TLV
ON 10 TWA
NT, YT 75
115
TWA
[stel]
Other Jurisdiction OEL (ppm) Notes
ACGIH 2020 TLV 10 TWA; s
ppm = parts per million
ACGIH = American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists
TLV = threshold limit value
TWA = time weighted average (8 hours)
s = sensitizer (a substance that stimulates an immune reaction; subsequent exposures result in intense responses, even at exposures below the TLV)
dsen = dermal sensitizer
stel = short term exposure limit (15 min. maximum)

Canadian environmental guidelines and standards*

Jurisdiction Limit Year
Canadian Council of Ministers for the Environment (CCME) National Classification System for Contaminated Sites Rank: “High priority”; no guideline developed 2008[24]
Ontario Ambient Air Quality Criteria 2400 µg/m(odour based) 2016[25]
Ontario’s Air Pollution – Local Air Quality Regulation Standards 1/2 hour standard: 2,400 µg/m3; Prohibited discharge into the air if the concentration of 1,2-DCP exceeds the half hour standard 2020[26]
Quebec’s Clean Air Regulation 1 year limit: 4 µg/m3; Prohibited discharge into the air if the concentration of 1,2-DCP exceeds the 1 year standard 2011[27]
Environment Canada’s National Pollutant Release Inventory Listed under Part 1A: Threshold Category. Reportable to NPRI if manufactured, processed, or otherwise used at quantities greater than 10 tonnes 2016[28]
BC’s Contaminated Sites Regulation, BC Reg 375/96 Sets soil standards for the protection of human health:
Agricultural and low density residential sites: 600 μg/g
Urban park and high density residential sites: 1,000 μg/g
Commercial sites: 3,500 μg/g
Industrial sites: 10,000 μg/g

 

Drinking water: 4.5 μg/L

Sets vapour standards for the protection of human health:
Agricultural, urban park, residential uste standard: 4 μg/m3
Commercial use standard: 10 μg/m3
Industrial use standard: 35 μg/m3
Parkade use standard: 30 μg/m3

2019[29]
WHO Drinking Water Guideline 0.04 mg/L (provisional guideline value) 2011[30]
 
*Standards are legislated and legally enforceable, while guidelines (including Ontario ambient air quality criteria) describe concentrations of contaminants in the environment (e.g. air, water) that are protective against adverse health, environmental, or aesthetic (e.g. odour) effects
1,2-DCP was not included in other Canadian government guidelines, standards, or chemical listings reviewed.

Main Uses

1,2-DCP is a synthetic chemical and a byproduct in producing epichlorohydrin. Currently, the major use of 1,2-DCP is as an intermediate for producing organic compounds.[3,31] Other functions include: a solvent in paint, varnish, and furniture finish removers; a lead scavenger in gasoline additives such as anti-knock fluids; a dry cleaning fluid; a paint remover; and a metal degreaser. 1,2-DCP is also used to make and convert rubber, prepare scouring compounds, and produce photographic film.[31] In many of these cases, 1,2-DCP has now been replaced by other compounds.[3]

In the past, 1,2-DCP was formulated with 1,3-dichloropropene in a formulation called D-D mixture that was used to fumigate soil and grain. Formulations containing 1,2-DCP were effective against soil nematodes, and were applied to a number of different crops including wheat, canola, sugar beets, and others.[31] 1,2-DCP has not been used as a soil fumigant in Canada since the 1980s,[4] and it is currently not registered for use as a pesticide under the Pest Control Act.[32]

Canadian Production and Trade

The total global production volume of 1,2-DCP was estimated at 350,000 tonnes for 2001.[31] Major producers of 1,2-DCP at that time were located in India, Germany, and the United States.[31] In 2015, between 100 million and 1 million pounds of 1,2-dichloropropane were produced in the United States[33]. In 2018, approximately 19.4 million pounds of 1,2-dichloropropane were waste managed in the United States.[33]

Production and trade information for 1,2-DCP specific to Canada is scarce. Results from the second Domestic Substances List Inventory Update indicate that between 100 to 999 kg of 1,2-DCP was imported during 2011 as an intermediate compound for paper products, mixtures, or manufactured items.[34]

Environmental Exposures Overview

1,2-DCP is a synthetic chemical and its presence in the environment is the direct result of anthropogenic activity. For example, 1,2-DCP is released into wastewater by industries that use it as a solvent. This occurs in the manufacture of ion exchange resins.[3]

In groundwater, 1,2-DCP may persist for a long time.[3] It is very resistant to degradation in soil; one study showed that after 12 weeks in a closed system, 98% of the initial amount of 1,2-DCP applied could be recovered.[35]

Exposure to 1,2-DCP in the general population may occur by inhaling contaminated air or consuming contaminated drinking water.[3] According to the National Pollutant Release Inventory, there were no on-site releases of 1,2-DCP to the air by industry in Canada in 2010 and 2014.[36] However, exposure to 1,2-DCP may arise when shallow groundwater gets contaminated by soils to which 1,2-DCP had been historically applied and then desorbed. Contamination can also take place when currently-used fumigants, such as 1,3-dichloropropene, contain trace amounts of 1,2-DCP.[37] For example, 1,2-DCP was detected in 56% of wells sampled in Southwestern BC in 1997-1998.[37] However, since 1,2-DCP is no longer used as a soil fumigant and in commercial products in Canada and the United States, environmental exposure is expected to be low.

Occupational Exposures Overview

The main routes of occupational exposure are through inhalation and dermal pathways.[38] People who produce 1,2-DCP, use it in chemical reactions, or use it as an industrial solvent have the greatest potential for exposure.[39,40]

Canadian occupational exposure data is limited. In the 1981-1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health estimated that 2,944 workers, not including farmers, were potentially exposed to 1,2-DCP in the United States.[8] Dow Chemical Company, a major manufacturer of 1,2-DCP, estimated that 45 to 123 workers were routinely and potentially exposed to the chemical in the 1980s.[3] However, because the conversion and disposal of 1,2-DCP occurs in closed systems, Dow Chemical Company asserts that the current level of exposure is minimal.[3]

Exposure to 1,2-DCP in its solvent form increases with poor ventilation and lack of respiratory protective equipment. This is illustrated in the studies IARC reviewed on the Japanese printing plant where exposures were 19 to 33 times the occupational exposure limit set by the Canadian Labour Code.[6,7] Other printing plants in Japan with poor ventilation were estimated to result in similar, or even higher levels of exposure.[41] Such high exposure levels are unlikely to occur in Canadian workplaces since 1,2-DCP is not used as a solvent.[34]

CAREX Canada has not prioritized 1,2-DCP for exposure estimate development. This is because there is a lack of exposure monitoring data in the Canadian Workplace Exposure Database on which to base an estimate.

Sources

1. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). IARC Monographs Volume 110 (2016) (PDF)
2. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Toxic Substances – 1,2-Dichloropropane (2021)
3. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Toxicological profile for 1,2-Dichloropropane (1989) (PDF)
4. Government of Canada. Contaminants: 1,2-Dichloropropane (2013)
6. Kumagi S, Kurumatani N, Arimoto A, Ichihara G. “Cholangiocarcinoma among offset colour proof-printing workers exposed to 1,2-dichloropropane and/or dichloromethane.” Occup and Environ Med 2013;70:508-5010.
7. Kubo S, Nakanuma Y, Takemura S, et al. “Case series of 17 patients with cholangiocarcinoma among young adult workers of a printing company in Japan.”Journ of Hepato Panc Sci 2014;21:479-488.
8. US National Library of Medicine. National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Summary for CID 6564, 1,2-Dichloropropane
12. The Canadian Legal Information Institute (CanLII) Manitoba Regulation 217/2006 Workplace Safety and Health Regulation (2022)
14. Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. Regulation 5,12 Occupational Health and Safety Regulations (2018)
15. Government of the Northwest Territories. Occupational Health and Safety Regulations, R-039-2015 (2020) (PDF)
17. The Canadian Legal Information Institute (CanLII). Government of Nunavut’s Occupational Health and Safety Regulations, Nu Reg 003-2016 (2010)
19. Government of Prince Edward Island. Occupational Health and Safety Act Regulations Chapter 0-1 (2013) (PDF)
21. The Canadian Legal Information Institute (CanLII) The Occupational Health and Safety Regulations, 1996 (2022)
22. The Canadian Legal Information Institute (CanLII). Yukon’s Occupational Health Regulations, O.I.C. 1986/164 (2020) (PDF)
23. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Annotated PELs (2020)
24. Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME). National Classification System for Contaminated Sites (2008) (PDF)
25. Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change. Ontario’s Ambient Air Quality Criteria (2019)
27. Government of Quebec. Clean Air Regulation, Q-2, r. 4.1 (2020)
29. Government of British Columbia. Contaminated Sites Regulation B.C. Reg. 375/96 (2021)
31. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). 1,2-Dichloropropane. UNEP Publications (2003)
33. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Final Scope of the Risk Evaluation for 1,2-Dichloropropane (2020) (PDF)
37. Tesoriero AJ, Loffler FE, Liebscher H. “Fate and origin of 1,2-dichloropropane in an unconfined shallow aquifer.” Environ Sci and Tech 2001;35:455-461.
38. Wisconsin Department of Health Services. 1,2-Dichloropropane (2015)
39. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1,2-Dichloropropane Fact Sheet (1999) (PDF)
40. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Propylene Dichloride (1,2-Dichloropropane) Hazard Summary (2000) (PDF)
41. Kumagai S. “Two offset printing workers with cholangiocarcinoma.” Journ of Occup Health 2014;56:164-168.

   

Subscribe to our newsletters

The CAREX Canada team offers two regular newsletters: the biannual e-Bulletin summarizing information on upcoming webinars, new publications, and updates to estimates and tools; and the monthly Carcinogens in the News, a digest of media articles, government reports, and academic literature related to the carcinogens we’ve classified as important for surveillance in Canada. Sign up for one or both of these newsletters below.

CAREX Canada

School of Population and Public Health

University of British Columbia
Vancouver Campus
370A - 2206 East Mall
Vancouver, BC  V6T 1Z3
CANADA

© 2023 CAREX Canada
Simon Fraser University

As a national organization, our work extends across borders into many Indigenous lands throughout Canada. We gratefully acknowledge that our host institution, the University of British Columbia Point Grey campus, is located on the traditional, ancestral and unceded territories of the xʷməθkʷəy̓əm (Musqueam) people.

1,2-Dichloropropane – Resources

1,2-Dichloropropane Resources

Publications

Exposure Reduction

Our team has performed a detailed scan of exposure control resources and assembled a compilation of key publications and resources. These are organized by type of exposure (environmental or occupational) and by specificity (general or carcinogen-specific). Please visit our Exposure Reduction Resources page to view.

We also recommend exploring the Prevention Policies Directory, a freely-accessible online tool offering information on policies related to cancer and chronic disease prevention. Providing summaries of the policies and direct access to the policy documents, the Directory allows users to search by carcinogen, risk factor, jurisdiction, geographical location, and document type. For questions about this resource, please contact a member of the Prevention Team at the Canadian Partnership Against Cancer at primary.prevention@partnershipagainstcancer.ca.

Subscribe to our newsletters

The CAREX Canada team offers two regular newsletters: the biannual e-Bulletin summarizing information on upcoming webinars, new publications, and updates to estimates and tools; and the monthly Carcinogens in the News, a digest of media articles, government reports, and academic literature related to the carcinogens we’ve classified as important for surveillance in Canada. Sign up for one or both of these newsletters below.

CAREX Canada

School of Population and Public Health

University of British Columbia
Vancouver Campus
370A - 2206 East Mall
Vancouver, BC  V6T 1Z3
CANADA

© 2023 CAREX Canada
Simon Fraser University

As a national organization, our work extends across borders into many Indigenous lands throughout Canada. We gratefully acknowledge that our host institution, the University of British Columbia Point Grey campus, is located on the traditional, ancestral and unceded territories of the xʷməθkʷəy̓əm (Musqueam) people.

1,3-Butadiene

1,3-Butadiene

1,3-Butadiene Profile

INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS   KNOWN CARCINOGEN (IARC 1)

CAS No. 106-99-0
IARC Monograph Vol. 97, 2008 (Group 1)
IARC Monograph Vol. 100F, 2012 (Group 1)

1,3-Butadiene Profile

QUICK SUMMARY

  • A by-product of incomplete combustion of organic matter; produced commercially for industrial use
  • Associated cancers: Blood and lymphatic system cancers
  • Most important route of exposure: Inhalation
  • Uses: Found in synthetic elastomers (ex. in automobile tires), butadiene rubbers (ex. in rubber products, chewing gum), and styrene-butadiene latex (ex. in coated paper, flooring)
  • Occupational exposures: Approx. 3,300 Canadians are exposed at work, primarily in basic chemical manufacturing and oil and gas extraction industries 
  • Environmental exposures: Via combustion sources in indoor and outdoor air such as vehicle exhaust, cigarette smoke, cooking, heating, and forest fires
  • Fast fact: Newer vehicles with catalytic converters emit less 1,3-butadiene than older vehicles.

General Information

1,3-Butadiene is a non-corrosive colourless gas with an odour similar to that of gasoline.[1] It is emitted as a byproduct of incomplete combustion of organic matter, and is produced commercially for use in the chemical polymer industry.[2] 1,3-Butadiene may also be referred to as butadiene or vinylethylene.[3] There are numerous other synonyms and product names; see the Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB) for more information.[3]

1,3-Butadiene has been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as Group 1, carcinogenic to humans, with sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans.[4] 1,3-Butadiene causes cancer of the haematolymphatic organs, and this is also supported by sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals.[4]

Concurrent exposure to other chemicals complicates analysis of additional adverse health effects related to 1,3-butadiene. However, cardiovascular and respiratory effects have been reported.[5] Low levels of exposure may result in sensory irritation while short term high levels may damage the central nervous system.[5] Dermal exposure to liquid 1,3-butadiene can cause irritation and frostbite.[5] Animal data indicates potential for reproductive effects, although there is as yet no evidence in humans.[6]

Regulations and Guidelines

Occupational exposure limits (OEL) [7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21]

Canadian Jurisdictions OEL (ppm)
Canada Labour Code 2
BC, AB, MB, NB, NS, NL, ON, PE, QC 2
NT, NU, SK 2
4 [stel]
YT 1000
1250 [stel]
Other Jurisdiction OEL (ppm)
ACGIH 2020 TLV 2
ppm = parts per million
stel = short term exposure limit (15 min. maximum)
ACGIH = American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists
TLV = threshold limit value

Canadian environmental guidelines and standards*

Jurisdiction Limit Year
Cosmetics Hotlist Not Permitted 2011[22]
National Classification System for Contaminated Sites Rank= “High hazard”, confirmed human carcinogen 2008[23]
BC’s Contaminated Sites Regulation, BC Reg 375/96 Sets soil standards for the protection of human health:
Agricultural and low density residential sites: 2 μg/g
Urban park and high density residential sites: 4 μg/g
Commercial and industrial sites: 9.5 μg/g

Drinking water: 1 μg/L

Sets vapour standards for the protection of human health:
Agricultural, urban park, residential use standard: 2 μg/m3
Commercial use standard: 2 μg/m3
Industrial use standard: 3 μg/m3
Parkade use standard: 2.5 μg/m3

2017[24]
Ontario Ambient Air Quality Criteria Annual: 2 µg/m3
24-hour: 10 µg/m3
2016[25]
Ontario’s Air Pollution – Local Air Quality Regulation Standards Annual: 2 µg/m3; Prohibited discharge into the air if the concentration of 1,3-butadiene exceeds the annual standard 2020[26]
Government of Canada’s Indoor Air Reference Levels 1.7 µg/m3 (critical effect: leuekmia) 2018[27]
*Standards are legislated and legally enforceable, while guidelines (including Ontario ambient air quality criteria) describe concentrations of contaminants in the environment (e.g. air, water) that are protective against adverse health, environmental, or aesthetic (e.g. odour) effects

Canadian agencies/organizations

Agency Designation/Position Year
Health Canada DSL – low priority substance (already risk managed) 2006[28]
CEPA Schedule 1, paragraphs ‘b’ and ‘c’ 1999[29]
Challenge to Industry Batch 2 2009[30]
Environment Canada’s National Pollutant Release Inventory Reportable to NPRI if manufactured, processed, or otherwise used at quantities greater than 10 tonnes or if released at quantities greater than 1 tonne of 10-tonne total VOC air release 2016[31]
DSL = domestic substance list
CEPA = Canadian Environmental Protection Act

1,3-Butadiene was not included in other Canadian government guidelines, standards, or chemical listings reviewed.

Main Uses

1,3-Butadiene is used primarily to manufacture synthetic elastomers, including polybutadiene rubber used in automobile tires, vehicle parts, and appliance and electrical equipment components;[1] styrene-butadiene rubber used in rubber products[32] and chewing gum;[33] styrene-butadiene latex, used in coated paper, certain types of flooring, adhesives, and tire cord latex;[34] and nitrile-butadiene rubber, a copolymer of butadiene and acrylonitrile used in products that require oil resistance, such as hoses and belting.[35]

Polybutadiene is the largest end use of butadiene elastomers in Canada.[36] Production of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) polymers in Canada ceased in 1994.[36]

Other uses include neoprene rubber, ABS resins, co-polymer resins and latexes for paints, coatings and adhesives, oil lubricant additives, and rocket propellants.[37] A non-polymer use is for producing adiponitrile, a nylon intermediate.[1]

1,3-Butadiene has also been used to produce the agricultural fungicides captan and captafol.[1]

Canadian Production and Trade

Production and trade

Activity Quantity Year
Export 79,937 t (of ‘buta-1,3-diene and isoprene’) 2021[38]
Import 3,299 t (of ‘buta-1,3-diene and isoprene’) 2021[38]
t = tonne

Environmental Exposures Overview

The most important route of exposure for the general Canadian population is inhalation.[2]

CAREX Canada’s environmental estimates indicate that 1,3-butadiene levels in indoor air result in an increased lifetime risk of cancer at a population level (moderate data quality). Factors contributing to indoor levels of butadiene include cigarette smoke, proximity to a vehicle exhaust source (traffic or garage), cooking activity involving heated fats and oils (such as Chinese grapeseed, peanut, soybean and canola oils), wood burning, and natural gas/oil space heating.[2]

CAREX Canada estimates that levels of 1,3-butadiene in outdoor air may also result in an increased risk of cancer (high data quality). Factors contributing to levels in outdoor air include forest fires, vehicle emissions, aircraft, marine and rail transportation, waste incinerator emissions, and thermal breakdown of butadiene-based rubbers and plastics.[1,2] Newer vehicles with catalytic converters emit less 1,3-butadiene than older vehicles.[2]

Butadiene is not persistent in air and has an atmospheric half life of a few hours, depending on weather conditions.[2] Levels in ambient air have been measured at several sites across Canada since 1987.[39] Data published in 2006 indicates that the average 1,3-butadiene concentration from 2000-2003 was 0.22µg/m3 and 0.02 µg/m3 for urban and rural sites, respectively. The highest recorded 24-hour concentration was 2.58 µg/m3, measured near an industrial point source in Sarnia in 2001. Other industrial point sources where concentrations may be high include Yellowknife, Fort McMurray, Port Mellon, Montreal/Varennes, and Oakville. However, industrial emissions have declined since 2004.

There is currently little available data to indicate whether butadiene is present in drinking water, food, and soil in Canada.[2] The potential for butadiene to migrate to food from containers exists, but is expected to be minimal; this route of exposure is likely much less important than inhalation.[2]

Searches of environmental and consumer product databases yielded the following results on current potential for exposure to 1,3-butadiene in Canada:

NPRI and US Consumer Product Information Database

NPRI 2015[40]
Substance name: ‘1,3-Butadiene’
Category Quantity Industry
Released into Environment 26 t Manufacturing (basic chemical; resin, synthetic
rubber, and fibres; petroleum and coal product),
oil and gas extraction,
pulp, paper and paperboard mills (21 facilities)
Disposed of 0.049 t
Sent to off-site recycling 0.004 t
US Consumer Products 2016[41]
Search Term Quantity Product Type
‘butadiene’ 4 Roofing and cement adhesives
t = tonne

For more information, see the environmental exposure estimate for 1,3-butadiene.

Occupational Exposures

Inhalation is the most important route of occupational exposure.[1] The potential for exposure exists in petroleum refining, as well as during production of purified butadiene monomer, various butadiene-based rubber and plastic polymers, and rubber and plastic products, such as tyres, hoses and a variety of molded objects.[4]

CAREX Canada estimates that approximately 3,300 Canadians are exposed to 1,3-butadiene in their workplaces. The largest industrial groups exposed are basic chemical manufacturing, oil and gas extraction, and petroleum and coal product manufacturing. The largest exposure groups by occupation are construction trades helpers and labourers, central control and process operators in petroleum, gas and chemical processing, and rubber processing machine operators and related workers.

For more information, see the occupational exposure estimate for 1,3-butadiene.

Sources

1. National Toxicology Profile (NTP). 14th report on carcinogens for 1,3-butadiene (2016) (PDF)
3. US National Library of Medicine. National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Summary for CID 7845, 1,3-Butadiene
4. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Monograph Vol. 100F 1,3-Butadiene (2012) (PDF)
5. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Toxicological Profile for 1,3-butadiene (2012) (PDF)
10. The Canadian Legal Information Institute (CanLII) Manitoba Regulation 217/2006 Workplace Safety and Health Regulation (2022)
12. Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. Regulation 5,12 Occupational Health and Safety Regulations (2018)
13. Government of the Northwest Territories. Occupational Health and Safety Regulations, R-039-2015 (2020) (PDF)
15. The Canadian Legal Information Institute (CanLII). Government of Nunavut’s Occupational Health and Safety Regulations, Nu Reg 003-2016 (2010)
17. Government of Prince Edward Island. Occupational Health and Safety Act Regulations Chapter 0-1 (2013) (PDF)
19. Government of Saskatchewan. The Occupational Health and Safety Regulations, 1996 (2016) (PDF)
20. The Canadian Legal Information Institute (CanLII). Yukon’s Occupational Health Regulations, O.I.C. 1986/164 (2020) (PDF)
21. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Annotated PELs (2020)
22. Health Canada. Cosmetic Ingredient Hotlist (2019)
23. Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME). National Classification System for Contaminated Sites (2008) (PDF)
24. Government of British Columbia. Contaminated Sites Regulation B.C. Reg. 375/96 (2019)
25. Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change. Ontario’s Ambient Air Quality Criteria (2019)
26. Government of Quebec. Clean Air Regulation, Q-2, r. 4.1 (2020)
27. Government of Canada. Summary of indoor air reference levels (2018)
29. Environment and Climate Change Canada. CEPA List of Toxic Substances (2020)
32. CPI Product Profile, Camford Information Services: Styrene-butadiene rubber (1999)
33. US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Food Additive Status List (2014)
34. CPI Product Profile, Camford Information Services: Styrene-butadiene latex (1999)
35. CPI Product Profile, Camford Information Services: Nitrile-butadiene rubbers (1999)
36. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Medical Management Guidelines for 1,3-Butadiene (2014)
37. Thomas net News. Lanxess Corporation Press release (2008)
38. International Trade Centre. TradeMap (Free subscription required)
40. Environment and Climate Change Canada. National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) Inventory data search (Substance name: ‘1,3-Butadiene’)
41. Consumer Product Information Database (CPID). Chemicals (Search term: ‘1,3-Butadiene’)

     

Other Resources

  1. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Chemical Assessment Summary (2002) (PDF)
  2. Cheng H, et al. “1,3-Butadiene and leukemia among synthetic rubber industry workers: Exposure response relationships.”Chemico-Biological Interactions 2007;166(1-3):15-24.
  3. Sathiakumar N, Graff J, Macaluso M, Maldonado G, Matthews R, Delzell E. “An updated study of mortality among North American synthetic rubber industry workers.” Occup and Environ Med 2005;62:822-829.
  4. Hughes K, Meek ME, Walker M, Beauchamp R. “1,3-Butadiene: Exposure Estimation, Hazard Characterization, and Exposure- Response Analysis.” J of Toxicol Environ Health B: Crit Rev 2003;6(1):55-83.

Subscribe to our newsletters

The CAREX Canada team offers two regular newsletters: the biannual e-Bulletin summarizing information on upcoming webinars, new publications, and updates to estimates and tools; and the monthly Carcinogens in the News, a digest of media articles, government reports, and academic literature related to the carcinogens we’ve classified as important for surveillance in Canada. Sign up for one or both of these newsletters below.

CAREX Canada

School of Population and Public Health

University of British Columbia
Vancouver Campus
370A - 2206 East Mall
Vancouver, BC  V6T 1Z3
CANADA

© 2023 CAREX Canada
Simon Fraser University

As a national organization, our work extends across borders into many Indigenous lands throughout Canada. We gratefully acknowledge that our host institution, the University of British Columbia Point Grey campus, is located on the traditional, ancestral and unceded territories of the xʷməθkʷəy̓əm (Musqueam) people.

1,3-Butadiene – Environmental Exposures

1,3-Butadiene Environmental Exposures

1,3-Butadiene Environmental Exposures

Overview

The most important route of exposure for the general Canadian population is inhalation.[1] CAREX Canada’s environmental estimates indicate that 1,3-butadiene levels in indoor air result in an increased lifetime risk of cancer at a population level (moderate data quality).

 
READ MORE...

Factors contributing to indoor levels of butadiene include cigarette smoke, proximity to a vehicle exhaust source (traffic or garage), cooking activity involving heated fats and oils (such as Chinese rapeseed, peanut, soybean and canola oils), wood burning, and natural gas/oil space heating.[1]

Canada estimates that levels of 1,3-butadiene in outdoor air may also result in an increased risk of cancer (high data quality). Factors contributing to levels in outdoor air include forest fires, vehicle emissions, aircraft, marine and rail transportation, waste incinerator emissions, and thermal breakdown of butadiene-based rubbers and plastics.[1,2] Newer vehicles with catalytic converters emit less 1,3-butadiene than older vehicles.[1]

Butadiene is not persistent in air and has an atmospheric half life of a few hours, depending on weather conditions.[1] Levels in ambient air have been measured at several sites across Canada since 1987.[3] Data published in 2006 indicates that the average 1,3-butadiene concentration from 2000-2003 was 0.22µg/m3 and 0.02 µg/m3 for urban and rural sites, respectively. The highest recorded 24-hour concentration was 2.58 µg/m3, measured near an industrial point source in Sarnia in 2001. Other industrial point sources where concentrations may be high include Yellowknife, Fort McMurray, Port Mellon, Montreal/Varennes, and Oakville. However, industrial emissions have declined since 2004.

There is currently little available data to indicate whether butadiene is present in drinking water, food, and soil in Canada.[1] The potential for butadiene to migrate to food from containers exists, but is expected to be minimal; this route of exposure is likely much less important than inhalation.[1]

Searches of environmental and consumer product databases yielded the following results on current potential for exposure to 1,3-butadiene in Canada:

NPRI and US Household Products Database

NPRI 2015[4]
Substance name: ‘1,3-Butadiene’
Category Quantity Industry
Released into Environment 26 t Manufacturing (basic chemical; resin, synthetic
rubber, and fibres; petroleum and coal product),
oil and gas extraction,
pulp, paper and paperboard mills (21 facilities)
Disposed of 0.049 t
Sent to off-site recycling 0.004 t
t = tonne
US Household Products 2016[5]
Search Term Quantity Product Type
‘butadiene’ 4 Roofing and cement adhesives
 

Mapping

This map shows predicted levels of 1,3-butadiene in outdoor air at residential locations by health region in Canada as of 2011. The average (median) concentration of 1,3-butadiene within the health regions measured in outdoor air for 2011 was 0.066 µg/m3, but concentrations of 1,3-butadiene can be higher or lower than average in many locations. Concentrations should be compared to the applicable jurisdictional guidelines and standards for ambient air quality based on chronic, carcinogenic effects (or non-carcinogenic effects, if cancer is not the point of interest).

Predicted annual average 1,3-butadiene concentrations in outdoor air at residential locations by health region, 2011

*Measured at the National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS) monitors in 2011

Cancer Risk Estimates

Potential lifetime excess cancer risk (LECR) is an indicator of Canadians’ exposure to known or suspected carcinogens in the environment. When potential LECR is more than 1 per million in a single pathway, a more detailed risk assessment may be useful for confirming the need to reduce individual exposure. If measured levels of 1,3-butadiene in relevant exposure pathways (outdoor air, indoor air, drinking water, and food and beverages) decrease, the risk will also decrease.

Potential LECR is calculated by multiplying lifetime average daily intake (the amount inhaled or ingested) by a cancer potency factor or unit risk factor. More than one cancer potency factor may be available, because agencies interpret the underlying health studies differently, or use a more precautionary approach. Our results use cancer potency factors from Health Canada, the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), and/or the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA).

The calculated lifetime daily intake and LECR results for 1,3-butadiene are provided in the tables below. For more information on supporting data and sources, click on the Methods and Data tab below.

Calculated Lifetime Daily Intake

Lifetime Excess Cancer Risk (per million people)

*LECR based on average intake x cancer potency factor from each agency

Compare substances: Canadian Potential Lifetime Excess Cancer Risk, 2011

The data in this table are based on average intake and Health Canada’s cancer potency factor, assuming no change in measured levels. When Health Canada values are not available, United States Environmental Protection Agency values are used.
Click the second tab to view LECR data. 

**Exposure not applicable: For indicated pathways, substance not present, not carcinogenic, or exposure is negligible
**Gap in data: No cancer potency factor or unit risk factor, or no data available
IARC Group 1 = Carcinogenic to humans, IARC Group 2A = Probably carcinogenic to humans, IARC Group 2B = Possibly carcinogenic to humans
NOTE: Chromium (hexavalent) estimates assume that 5% of total chromium measured in outdoor air is hexavalent and 8% total chromium measured in indoor dust is hexavalent.

Potential LECR assumes exposure occurs at the same level, 24 hours per day, for 70 years. This is rarely true for any single individual, but using a standard set of assumptions allows us to provide a relative ranking for known and suspected carcinogens across different exposure routes. While ongoing research continually provides new evidence about cancer potency and whether there is a safe threshold of exposure, our approach assumes there are no safe exposure levels.

Methods and Data

Our Environmental Approach page outlines the general approach used to calculate lifetime excess cancer risk estimates and includes documentation on our mapping methods.

Data sources and data quality for 1,3-butadiene can be found in the PDF below.

Supplemental data – 1,3-Butadiene [PDF]

Sources

2. National Toxicology Profile (NTP). 14th report on carcinogens for 1,3-butadiene (2016) (PDF)
4. Environment and Climate Change Canada. National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) Facility Search (Substance name: ‘1,3-Butadiene’)
5. Consumer Product Information Database (CPID). Chemicals (Search term: ‘1,3-Butadiene’)
   

Subscribe to our newsletters

The CAREX Canada team offers two regular newsletters: the biannual e-Bulletin summarizing information on upcoming webinars, new publications, and updates to estimates and tools; and the monthly Carcinogens in the News, a digest of media articles, government reports, and academic literature related to the carcinogens we’ve classified as important for surveillance in Canada. Sign up for one or both of these newsletters below.

CAREX Canada

School of Population and Public Health

University of British Columbia
Vancouver Campus
370A - 2206 East Mall
Vancouver, BC  V6T 1Z3
CANADA

© 2023 CAREX Canada
Simon Fraser University

As a national organization, our work extends across borders into many Indigenous lands throughout Canada. We gratefully acknowledge that our host institution, the University of British Columbia Point Grey campus, is located on the traditional, ancestral and unceded territories of the xʷməθkʷəy̓əm (Musqueam) people.

1,3-Butadiene – Occupational Exposures

1,3-Butadiene Occupational Exposures

1,3-Butadiene Occupational Exposures

Overview

Inhalation is the most important route of occupational exposure.[1] The potential for exposure exists in petroleum refining, as well as during production of purified butadiene monomer, various butadiene-based rubber and plastic polymers, and rubber and plastic products, such as tyres, hoses and a variety of molded objects.[2]

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CAREX Canada estimates that approximately 3,300 Canadians are exposed to 1,3-butadiene in their workplaces. The largest industrial groups exposed are basic chemical manufacturing, oil and gas extraction, and petroleum and coal product manufacturing. The largest exposure groups by occupation are construction trades helpers and labourers, central control and process operators in petroleum, gas and chemical processing, and rubber processing machine operators and related workers.

Prevalence Estimate

Results show that approximately 3,300 Canadians are exposed to 1,3-butadiene in their workplaces; 86% of these workers are male.

The largest industrial groups exposed are basic chemical manufacturing, oil and gas extraction, and petroleum and coal product manufacturing. The largest exposure groups by occupation are construction trades helpers and labourers (290 workers exposed), central control and process operators in petroleum, gas and chemical processing (280 workers exposed), and rubber processing machine operators and related workers (280 workers exposed).

The number of workers exposed to 1,3-butadiene decreased by approximately 620 workers from 2006 to 2016 (a 16% decrease). This was primarily driven by decreases in the total number of workers in the manufacturing industry.

Workers exposed to 1,3-butadiene by industry in 2016

Workers exposed to 1,3-butadiene by region in 2016

Click the second tab to view total number of workers exposed.

* = < 50 workers
Methods and Data

Our Occupational Approach page outlines the general approach used to calculate prevalence and exposure level estimates for workplace exposures.

Data Sources

Data used in developing the occupational estimates for 1,3-butadiene were collected from several sources:

  1. The Canadian Workplace Exposure Database (CWED) contains over 300 measurements for 1,3-butadiene exposure. These measurements were collected during the years 1984 to 1996 in Ontario workplaces.
  2. Canadian and US scientific peer reviewed publications that addressed 1,2-dichloroethane exposure in Canada and the United States.
  3. Grey literature including technical reports from governments and international bodies.

Prevalence Estimate Method

CAREX defines exposure to 1,3-butadiene as inhalation and dermal contact at work above levels encountered in indoor or ambient air when there is no additional source of combustion (i.e. wood fire smoke or cigarette smoke).

To determine the number of workers potentially exposed to 1,3-butadiene at work, CAREX occupational exposure experts used methods previously established in other peer-reviewed CAREX projects in Europe. A series of steps were taken to assign exposure proportions to occupations and industries at risk of exposure to 1,3-butadiene.

  1. Occupations and industries at risk of possible exposure to 1,3-butadiene were identified using any combination of data sources described above.
  2. The total number of workers in each identified occupation and industry intersection was obtained from Statistics Canada 2016 census data.
  3. A percentage of workers exposed was assigned to that occupation and industry intersection. Percentages were determined by consultation with existing evidence in the data sources, previously established methods from the Europe CAREX estimates and the expert judgement of CAREX occupational hygienists.
  4. The number of workers in the identified group is multiplied by the assigned percentage to calculate the prevalence estimate of workers exposed to 1,3-butadiene.
Sources

1. National Toxicology Profile (NTP). 14th report on carcinogens for 1,3-butadiene (2016) (PDF)
2. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Monograph Vol. 100F 1,3-Butadiene (2012) (PDF)

Subscribe to our newsletters

The CAREX Canada team offers two regular newsletters: the biannual e-Bulletin summarizing information on upcoming webinars, new publications, and updates to estimates and tools; and the monthly Carcinogens in the News, a digest of media articles, government reports, and academic literature related to the carcinogens we’ve classified as important for surveillance in Canada. Sign up for one or both of these newsletters below.

CAREX Canada

School of Population and Public Health

University of British Columbia
Vancouver Campus
370A - 2206 East Mall
Vancouver, BC  V6T 1Z3
CANADA

© 2023 CAREX Canada
Simon Fraser University

As a national organization, our work extends across borders into many Indigenous lands throughout Canada. We gratefully acknowledge that our host institution, the University of British Columbia Point Grey campus, is located on the traditional, ancestral and unceded territories of the xʷməθkʷəy̓əm (Musqueam) people.