Exposure Reduction Resources
This is a compilation of key publications and resources from a detailed scan of exposure control resources. Please note that it is not an exhaustive list. Reference to certain organizations does not represent a recommendation or endorsement by CAREX Canada.
BOTH OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES - GENERAL
1. Cancer Care Ontario. Prevention System Quality Index: Monitoring Ontario’s efforts in cancer prevention (2016) (PDF)
- Identifies opportunities to reduce exposure and implement cancer prevention initiatives in Ontario; includes ultraviolet radiation, environmental carcinogens (radon, particulate matter), and occupational carcinogens (asbestos, diesel engine exhaust, formaldehyde, and nickel).
2. Espina C, Porta M, Schüz J, Aguado IH, Percival RV, Dora C, Slevin T, Guzman JR, Meredith T, Landrigan PJ, Neira M. “Environmental and occupational Interventions for primary prevention of cancer: A cross-sectoral policy framework.” Environ Health Perspect 2013;121(4):420-426.
- A systematic review of policy approaches and effective interventions currently available for the primary prevention of cancer. Key interventions include the precautionary principle, ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable), chemical bans, economic policies across multiple sectors, the occupational exposure control hierarchy, individual level interventions, and “health in all policies”.
3. World Health Organization. Primary prevention of cancer through mitigation of environmental and occupational determinants (2011) (PDF)
- Provides examples of legislation, regulations, and policies for eliminating or reducing exposure to carcinogens, as well as examples of control measures in the workplace.
4. Canadian Strategy for Cancer Control. Prevention of occupational and environmental cancers in Canada: A best practices review and recommendations (2006) (PDF)
- Explores Canadian and international best practices for cancer control in key areas, including surveillance, information disclosure and labeling, community education and action, worker education and action, non-governmental organization activities, employer/industry reduction of carcinogens, and government interventions.
BOTH OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES - SPECIFIC CARCINOGENS - SOLAR UV RADIATION
1. Canadian Dermatology Association. Sun safety for every day (2019)
- Outlines sun safety tips to prevent short and long-term consequences of sun exposure, including specific suggestions for young children, seniors, and individuals using sun-sensitizing medications. Sun protective actions based on the daily UV index are also provided.
2. Canadian Partnership Against Cancer. Ultraviolet radiation policy pack: Local and provincial/territorial governments (2019)
- Presents a policy pack to support evidence-informed policy interventions to protect against UV radiation exposure, including background evidence, policy actions, exposure statistics, public perceptions, economic evidence, and progress indicators.
3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Guidelines for school programs to prevent skin cancer (2019)
- Provides sun safety tips for school-aged children and adolescents. Seven school-based recommendations are provided to promote sun safety, reduce UV exposure, and prevent skin cancer.
4. Sun Safety at Work. Do-control measures (2019)
- Provides control measures for outdoor worker sun exposure, including engineering and administrative controls, and personal protection. Various other resources are also provided.
5. WorkSafeBC. Sun and UV radiation (2019)
- A brief overview of UV radiation exposure, including information on exposed worker groups, short and long-term effects, and methods to reduce the risk of exposures. The hierarchy of controls for UV exposure are outlined.
6. Alberta Health Services. Outdoor workers (2018)
- Summarizes a variety of exposure reduction strategies for skin cancer. The importance of the UV index, shade, sunscreen, eye protection, clothing, and personal protective equipment for outdoor workers are discussed.
7. The Community Guide. What works fact sheet: Skin cancer prevention (2014) (PDF)
- Includes systematic reviews of interventions aimed at preventing skin cancer, including education and policy approaches (ex. primary schools, worksites), interventions targeting children’s parents and caregivers, and community-wide interventions (ex. mass media campaigns, community-wide programs).
ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES - GENERAL
1. Cancer Care Ontario. Environmental burden of cancer in Ontario (2016) (PDF)
- Summarizes the burden of environmental cancer in Ontario and provides exposure prevention recommendations for the most common environmental carcinogens, including solar radiation, radon, and fine particulate matter.
2. Dunn G, Bakker K, Harris L. “Drinking water quality guidelines across Canadian provinces and territories: Jurisdictional variation in the context of decentralized water governance.” Int J Environ Res Public Health 2014;11(5):4634-4651.
- Presents the first comprehensive review and analysis of the uptake of the Canadian Drinking Water Quality Guidelines (CDWQG) across Canada’s 13 provinces and territories,and makes recommendations for further research to address the high degree of variability in drinking water management and oversight capacity between urban and rural areas in Canada.
3. Reuben S. Reducing environmental cancer risk: What we can do now (2010) (PDF)
- Includes various policy, research, and program recommendations for carcinogen exposure reduction, such as adopting the precautionary approach, improving how regulations are promulgated and enforced, and including advocates in developing research and policy agendas.
4. World Health Organization. Preventing disease through healthy environments: Action is needed on chemicals of major public health concern (2010) (PDF)
- Provides a brief overview of exposure reduction interventions for various chemicals including air pollution, arsenic, asbestos, benzene, cadmium, and dioxin and dioxin-like substances (including PCBs).
5. Hyndman B, Cancer Care Ontario. Strategies for the reduction and control of environmental carcinogens in Canada: What’s happening? What’s missing? (2005) (PDF)
- Reviews the strategies utilized by governments, industry, researchers, and advocacy groups to reduce or eliminate carcinogen exposures, including surveillance, right-to-know measures, public education initiatives, reductions of carcinogens at the source, and legislative/regulatory measures.
ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES - SPECIFIC CARCINOGENS - ACRYLAMIDE
1. United States Department of Health and Human Services. Guidance for industry acrylamide in foods (2016) (PDF)
- Provides guidance to help food growers, manufacturers, and food service operators reduce acrylamide levels in certain foods.
2. European Food Safety Authority. Acrylamide in food (2015) (PDF)
- Summarizes the findings of the EFSA’s risk assessment on the public health risks of acrylamide, including an overview of how to reduce dietary exposure.
3. Health Canada. Acrylamide: What can you do to reduce exposure (2009)
- Discusses how individuals can lower acrylamide exposure from certain foods prepared in the home.
ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES - SPECIFIC CARCINOGENS - ARSENIC
1. Nachman KE, et. al. “Opportunities and Challenges for Dietary Arsenic Intervention” Environ Health Perspect 2018; 126(8):084503-1-6.
Discusses the challenges of regulating arsenic in the food supply and introduces a framework for shorter-term interventions for reducing arsenic along the field-to-plate food supply chain, from influencing agronomic practices and cultivar selection to educating consumers.
2. Health Canada. Arsenic in drinking water (2006) (PDF)
- Describes the risk of arsenic exposure from drinking water in Canada, including steps to take if there are excessive concentrations of arsenic in your drinking water.
3. Health Canada. Guidelines for Canadian drinking water quality: Guideline technical document (Arsenic) (2006) (PDF)
- Includes an overview of water treatment technologies at municipal and residential levels to reduce exposure to arsenic in drinking water.
4. Le X, Canadian Water Network. Arsenic in Canadian drinking water (n.d.) (PDF)
- Identifies arsenic “hot spots” in drinking water across Canada. Also includes an investigation into the effectiveness of home water treatment systems in removing total arsenic from water wells in Alberta.
ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES - SPECIFIC CARCINOGENS - ASBESTOS
- Provides health and safety resources on asbestos hazards during home renovations or demolitions, including sources of asbestos in the home, testing and removal guidelines, and how to prevent exposure.
2. Health Canada. Health risks of asbestos (2016)
- Summarizes sources of asbestos exposure, how to reduce the risk of exposure in the home and when completing car maintenance, and Government of Canada regulations.
3. Asbestos Safety and Eradication Agency. Case study – Conducting safe home renovations (n.d.) (PDF)
- Outlines best practices for conducting home renovations when asbestos is present, including tips on a precautionary approach, being an informed home buyer, and engaging a qualified asbestos removal company.
ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES - SPECIFIC CARCINOGENS - DIOXINS
1. World Health Organization. Dioxins and their effects on human health (2019)
- Provides an overview of dioxins and their effects on human health, including sources of contamination and sensitive exposure groups. Methods for preventing and controlling exposure are also discussed.
2. Minnesota Department of Health. Facts about dioxins (2006)
- Provides in-depth information on dioxins, such as chemical properties, sources, exposure pathways, and exposure reduction methods. Additional sources of information are also provided.
3. Health Canada. Dioxins and furans (2005)
- A brief outline of dioxins and furans, including tips on how to minimize risk of exposure.
ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES - SPECIFIC CARCINOGENS - FORMALDEHYDE
1. American Cancer Society. Formaldehyde (2019)
- Provides an overview of formaldehyde, including exposure reduction strategies.
2. Canadian Cancer Society. 7 ways to reduce your exposure to formaldehyde at home (2019)
- Provides seven tips for reducing formaldehyde exposure at home.
3. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Formaldehyde in your home: What you need to know (2016)
- Summarizes potential formaldehyde exposure sources in the home. Tips for reducing exposure in the home, choosing products with low or no formaldehyde, and how to reduce exposure from new products are outlined.
ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES - SPECIFIC CARCINOGENS - PESTICIDES
- A visual guide on safely using pesticides in your community and how to reduce your exposure.
2. Health Canada. Bedbugs: How do I get rid of them? (2015)
- Bedbugs are a growing nuisance in Canada and can be difficult eradicate from your home, resulting in people resorting to domestic pesticide usage. The Government of Canada provides some useful information about treating bedbugs safely and effectively.
3. Health Canada. Pesticides and food (2013)
- Health Canada provides information about food safety, organic produce, Canadian regulations on pesticide use, and how they determine their “Maximum Residue Limits” for pesticides on food. A PDF is available.
4. National Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health. Reducing residential indoor exposure to pesticides: A toolkit for practitioners (2011) (PDF)
- Presents strategies for reducing residential pesticide exposure indoors. Strategies focus on prevention and alternatives, safe use of pesticides, minimizing take-home and track-in exposures, and cleaning the home.
ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES - SPECIFIC CARCINOGENS - RADON
1. Canadian Cancer Society. What is radon – and how are we exposed to it? (2019)
- A brief outline of the main environmental and occupational pathways of radon exposure.
2. Canadian Environmental Law Association, CAREX Canada. Environmental Scan of Radon Law and Policy: Best Practices in Canada and the European Union (2018)
- Analyses the current state of radon law and policy in Canada and recommends both immediate and longer term policy options, identifying the strengths, limitations, and implementation considerations of each.
3. Canadian Environmental Law Association, Canadian Child Care Federation and Canadian Partnership for Children’s Health and Environment. Policy Measures to Address Radon in the Child Care Sector (2018)
- Outlines the hazard that radon presents in child care facilities and the existing rules and regulations, as well as four policy areas with opportunities to address radon, including: child care licensing rules, building codes, and the rules governing occupational health and safety and public health.
4. Canadian Environmental Law Association. Radon in indoor air: A review of policy and law in Canada (2014) (PDF)
- The CELA report makes 14 recommendations for addressing radon risks and filling gaps in research, policy, and law.
5. CHNET-Works! Fireside Chat: Housing Interventions and Respiratory Health (2013)
- This pre-recorded webinar explores scientific and policy issues related to residential housing quality and respiratory health, including case study examples on improving housing and other interventions.
6. Health Canada. Radon – Reduction guide for Canadians (2013)
- Provides information on testing for radon in Canadian homes and summarizes a number of exposure reduction methods including active soil depressurization.
7. Sandel M, Baeder A, Bradman A, Hughes J, Mitchell C, Shaughnessy R, Takaro TK, Jacobs DE. “Housing interventions and control of health-related chemical agents: A review of the evidence” J Public Health Manag Practic 2010;16(5):S24-S33.
- Includes an evaluation of housing interventions that affect health outcomes associated with exposure to chemical agents, including carcinogens radon and benzene.
8. World Health Organization. WHO handbook on indoor radon: a public health perspective (2009) (PDF)
- Provides an overview of radon prevention and mitigation actions, including key elements for a successful national radon program and prevention strategies for new and existing buildings.
9. National Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health. Effective interventions to reduce indoor radon levels (2008) (PDF)
- Summarizes common radon reduction interventions for existing homes and their relative effectiveness.
ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES - SPECIFIC CARCINOGENS - SECOND-HAND SMOKE
1. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Secondhand smoke and smoke-free homes (2018)
- Outlines second-hand smoke exposure and methods for reducing exposure.
2. Canadian Cancer Society. What you need to know about second-hand smoke
- Presents strategies for avoiding second-hand smoke exposure in various environments.
ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES - SPECIFIC CARCINOGENS - TRAFFIC-RELATED AIR POLLUTION
1. City of Toronto. Avoiding the TRAP: Traffic-related air pollution in Toronto and options for reducing exposure (2017) (PDF)
- Presents the results of a literature review into strategies to effectively mitigate traffic-related air pollution exposure in Toronto, including intervention strategies that address sources, exposure pathways, and receptors.
2. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Best practices for reducing near-road pollution exposure at schools (2015) (PDF)
- Discusses mitigation strategies for reducing traffic-related air pollution exposure in schools. The document focuses on ventilation, filtration, actions for building occupants, transportation policies, site location and design, and roadside barriers.
3. Metro Vancouver. Reducing exposure to traffic emissions (2013) (PDF)
- Identifies strategies for mitigating exposure to traffic-related air pollutants in the Lower Fraser Valley with special consideration of vulnerable populations.
4. Brauer M, Reynolds C, Hystad P. Traffic-related air pollution and health: A Canadian perspective on scientific evidence and potential exposure-mitigation strategies (2012) (PDF)
- Describes four categories of exposure-mitigation options for TRAP: Land-use planning and transportation management; reduction of vehicle emissions; modification of existing structures; and encouraging behavior change. Real-world implementation of policies and actions – within Canada and internationally – are examined.
5. Henschel S, Atkinson R, Zeka A, Le Tertre A, Analitis A, Katsouyanni K, Chanel O, Pascal M, Forsberg B, Medina S, Goodman PG. “Air pollution interventions and their impact on public health. “ Int J Public Health 2012;57(5):757-768.
- Reviews a collection of published intervention studies with particular focus on studies assessing both improvements in air quality and associated health effects.
OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURES - GENERAL
1. Occupational Cancer Research Centre. Burden of occupational cancer in Canada: Major workplace carcinogens and prevention of exposure (2019)
- Presents burden of occupational cancer estimates, along with exposure reduction strategies and policy recommendations for a number of workplace carcinogens including asbestos, diesel engine exhaust, crystalline silica, and more. Also provides general policy recommendations for workplace cancer prevention, including strengthening occupational exposure limits, creating workplace exposure registries, and reducing or eliminating use of cancer-causing substances.
2. Occupational Cancer Research Centre. Controlling Occupational Exposure to Carcinogens (2019)
- Summarizes the control strategies available for key exposures that contribute the most to the burden of occupational cancer in Canada: asbestos, diesel engine exhaust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, radon, second-hand smoke, night shift work, silica, solar UV radiation, and welding fumes.
3. Occupational Health Clinics for Ontario Workers, Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety. Prevent Occupational Disease website (2019)
- Provides an online repository of current and credible occupational health resources from Canada and around the world to help employers, supervisors, health and safety practitioners, and workers increase their understanding of occupational diseases and ways to prevent them.
4. Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety. Hazard control (2018)
- Provides an overview of hazard control in the workplace, including elimination controls, substitution, engineering controls, administrative controls, and personal protective equipment.
5. Cancer Care Ontario, Occupational Cancer Research Centre. Burden of occupational cancer in Ontario: Major workplace carcinogens and prevention of exposure (2017)
- Summarizes the burden of occupational cancer and exposure prevention recommendations for policy and workplaces for the most common occupational carcinogens in Ontario, including solar radiation, asbestos, diesel engine exhaust, silica, and many more.
6. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Engineering controls database (2015)
- The Engineering Controls Database provides information on effective engineering controls that can protect workers by eliminating or reducing hazardous conditions. The database can be searched by occupation or work process, and contains previously published material authored by NIOSH researchers.
7. Cancer Council Australia. Occupational cancers: Effective interventions (2015)
- Summarizes effective interventions for occupational cancers, including the use of research, monitoring and surveillance, primary prevention strategies, partnerships between sectors, integrated health protection and health promotion programs, and legislation to improve policy.
OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURES - SPECIFIC CARCINOGENS - ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS
1. BC Cancer Agency. Pharmacy practice standards for hazardous drugs (2016)
- Summarizes safe handling practice standards and recommendations for hazardous drugs in pharmacy settings.
2. Canadian Association of Provincial Cancer Agencies. Oral cancer drug therapy safe use and safe handling guidelines (2015) (PDF)
- Presents guidelines focused on the safe use and safe handling of oral cancer drug therapy.
3. WorkSafeBC. Best practices for the safe handling of hazardous drugs (2015)
- Outlines best practices to minimize worker exposure to hazardous drugs; includes task-specific guidelines for a variety of work settings.
4. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Medical surveillance for healthcare workers exposed to hazardous drugs (2012) (PDF)
- Summarizes the elements of a worker medical surveillance program (as part of a comprehensive approach to reducing exposure).
5. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Safe handling of hazardous drugs for veterinary healthcare workers (2010) (PDF)
- Summarizes safe handling practice standards and recommendations for hazardous drugs in veterinary settings.
6. Association paritaire pour la santé et la sécurité du travail du secture affaires sociales. Prevention guide: Safe handling of hazardous drugs (2007) (PDF)
- Provides recommendations for the safe handling of hazardous drugs, including antineoplastics. The resource is primarily directed towards health care workers but methods may also apply to their families and users of the health care network.
7. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. NIOSH Alert: Preventing occupational exposure to antineoplastic and other hazardous drugs in healthcare settings (2004) (PDF)
- Presents best practices to minimize worker exposure to hazardous drugs in healthcare settings.
OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURES - SPECIFIC CARCINOGENS - ARTIFICIAL ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION
1. Saskatchewan Construction Association. Tool box talk: Welder’s flash (2014) (PDF)
- A brief outline of welder’s flash, caused by the UV light produced by a welding arc, is provided. Welder’s flash prevention strategies are also outlined.
2. OSHwiki. Occupational exposure to artificial sources of UVR and prevention (2013)
- Summarizes occupational artificial UVR exposure and prevention strategies, with a focus on various engineering and administrative control measures.
3. Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency. Management plan for artificial sources: Supplementary information (2010) (PDF)
- Presents an exposure management plan for artificial UVR exposure, including control measures and priorities. Control measures according to the hierarchy of controls are provided.
OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURES - SPECIFIC CARCINOGENS - ASBESTOS
1. Government of Alberta. Alberta Asbestos Abatement Manual (2019) (PDF)
- Describes the principles to follow when selecting the most appropriate techniques for the safe abatement of asbestos-containing materials, as well as information on requirements for worker protection, safe work procedures, and applicable legislation.
2. Occupational Cancer Research Centre. Awareness of asbestos hazards in schools, asbestos management plans and training among Ontario school custodial workers (2019) (PDF)
- Presents an evaluation of custodial workers’ awareness of asbestos management in Ontario schools. The report recommends maintenance and custodial workers receive adequate and timely asbestos training and asbestos management plan are reviewed.
3. Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety. Asbestos control strategies for workplaces (2018)
- Provides an overview of the components of an asbestos control program and exposure reduction practices.
4. WorkSafeBC. Safe work practices for handling asbestos (2017)
- Describes the safe methods of handling all types of asbestos-containing materials and discusses suitable work procedures for the removal, enclosure, and encapsulation of friable asbestos materials.
5. Government of Alberta. Control of asbestos during brake maintenance and repair (2009) (PDF)
- Summarizes guidelines for minimizing asbestos exposure associated with brake maintenance and repair, including exposure reduction during various work tasks and appropriate use of personal protective equipment.
6. World Health Organization, International Labour Organization. Outline for the development of national programmes for elimination of asbestos-related diseases (2007) (PDF)
- Provides a model for developing a national program to eliminate asbestos-related diseases, which includes preventive strategies for reducing exposure to asbestos and related actions at the national, regional, and enterprise level.
OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURES - SPECIFIC CARCINOGENS - BENZENE
1. Government of Alberta. Benzene at the work site (2010) (PDF)
- Summarizes specific measures for preventing exposure to benzene in the workplace, including substitution, engineering controls, administrative controls, and personal protective equipment.
2. Energy Safety Canada. Controlling chemical hazards: Guidance sheet (n.d.) (PDF)
- Provides information on benzene exposure specific to the oil and gas industry, including risk evaluation, exposure reduction methods, and recommended employer, supervisor, and worker responsibilities.
OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURES - SPECIFIC CARCINOGENS - CHROMIUM (HEXAVALENT)
1. University of Washington. Hexavalent chromium exposure control package (2019)
- An exposure control package for hexavalent chromium. Modules 2 to 4 discuss various control measured to reduce hexavalent chromium exposure.
2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Criteria for a recommended standard: Occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium (2013) (PDF)
- Provides recommendations for controlling workplace exposure to hexavalent chromium, including an overview of the hierarchy of controls.
3. California Department of Public Health. Chromium-6 (2011) (PDF)
- Presents an overview of occupational exposure to chromium-6 (hexavalent chromium), including exposure reduction methods. Ventilation, modified work practices, personal protective equipment, and respirators are discussed.
OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURES - SPECIFIC CARCINOGENS - DIESEL ENGINE EXHAUST
1. Government of Canada. Control measures for diesel engine exhaust emissions in the workplace (2015) (PDF)
- Provides guidance on how to manage and control exposure to diesel engine exhaust emissions in the workplace, including respiratory protection equipment, engineering controls, work practices, and monitoring effectiveness of control methods.
2. Safe Work Australia. Guidance for managing the risks of diesel exhaust (2015) (PDF)
- Provides information on how to manage risks associated with exposure to diesel exhaust in the workplace.
3. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Hazard Alert: Diesel exhaust/diesel particulate matter (2013) (PDF)
- Includes examples of engineering and administrative controls for minimizing worker exposure to diesel engine exhaust.
4. Bugarski AD, Janisko SJ, Cauda EG, Noll JD, Mischler SE. Diesel aerosols and gases in underground mines: Guide to exposure assessment and control (2011) (PDF)
- Includes source controls, exposure controls, and administrative controls for reducing exposure to diesel aerosols and gases in underground mines.
5. Workers Health and Safety Centre. Diesel exhaust: It takes your breath away (n.d.) (PDF)
- Describes ways diesel engine exhaust exposure can be eliminated or controlled, including using cleaner burning diesel engines, fuel, and power sources, or retrofit technology. Examples of workplace policies and practices aimed at exposure reduction are also included.
OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURES - SPECIFIC CARCINOGENS - FORMALDEHYDE
1. California Department of Public Health. Formaldehyde (2011) (PDF)
- Provides information on formaldehyde exposure at work, including methods for reducing worker exposure. Specific exposure reduction methods are provided for funeral, apparel and textile, medical and health services, foundry and furniture, and electronics workers.
2. Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail. Prevention guide: Formaldehyde in the workplace (2006) (PDF)
- Summarizes methods for controlling exposure to formaldehyde in the workplace, including substitution, ventilation, and personal protective equipment. Also provides exposure control recommendations by sector of economic activity.
OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURES - SPECIFIC CARCINOGENS - LEAD
1. WorkSafeBC. Lead (2019)
- Outlines lead exposure at work, including the most common activities that may expose workers to lead. Methods to reduce the risk of exposure are also provided, according to the hierarchy of controls.
2. WorkSafeBC. Safe work practices for handling lead (2017) (PDF)
- Provides information about lead exposure at work and assists employers in developing suitable safe work procedures.
3. Ontario Ministry of Labour, Training and Skills Development. Lead on construction projects (2011)
- Describes lead exposure reduction and employee protection methods specifically for construction workers.
OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURES - SPECIFIC CARCINOGENS - PESTICIDES
1. Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety. Pesticides (2018)
- A variety of pesticide factsheets are available about using pesticides safely at work, including First Aid, Labels, Health Effects, and Re-Entry Time. The “Pesticides – Working Safely” fact sheet includes sections on proper mixing and application techniques, storage, and clean-up after a spill.
2. National Pesticide Information Centre. Minimizing exposure at work. (2016)
- The NPIC has developed a wide-range of useful factsheets on individual pesticides, as well as an overview on Minimizing Pesticide Exposure at Work.
3. Keifer MC. “Effectiveness of interventions in reducing pesticide overexposure and poisonings” Am J Prev Med 2000;18(4):80-90.
- This peer-reviewed article reviewed and evaluated several studies on the efficacy of various methods of pesticide exposure reduction interventions, including changes in application procedures, packaging, mixing, use of personal protective equipment, and biological monitoring.
4. Canadian Centre for Health and Safety in Agriculture. Instructions for handling and laundering chemical contaminated clothing (n.d.) (PDF)
- Provides specific instructions to help minimize pesticide exposure when preparing, laundering, and cleaning protective equipment.
OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURES - SPECIFIC CARCINOGENS - SHIFTWORK
NOTE: Shiftwork represents a complex and interwoven set of exposures with no simple control measures. However, there are interventions that may help to reduce the negative impacts of shiftwork.
1. Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety. Rotational Shiftwork (2018)
- Provides an overview of rotational shiftwork and the improvements that can be made at both the organizational and individual level.
2. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Work schedules: Shiftwork and long hours (2017)
- Provides training materials, guidance documents, publications, and other resources that address demanding work schedules.
3. Neil-Sztramko SE, Pahwa M, Demers PA, Gotay CC. “Health-related interventions among night shift workers: a critical review of the literature.” Scand J Work Environ Health 2014;40(6):543-556
- A literature review of several types of interventions with positive overall effects on chronic disease outcomes among shift workers, such as shift schedule changes and controlled light exposure.
4. Occupational Cancer Research Centre. Can the health effects of shift work be mitigated? A summary of select interventions (n.d.) (PDF)
- Summarizes studied interventions for reducing the risk of adverse health effects in permanent night or rotating shift workers. Interventions include schedule changes, controlled light or dark exposure, behavioural interventions, and drugs to promote sleep, wakefulness, or adaption.
OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURES - SPECIFIC CARCINOGENS - SILICA
1. BC Construction Safety Alliance. Silica Control Tool™ (2019)
- An online tool to assist with the silica exposure risk assessment process, implementation of effective controls, and safe work practices.
2. WorkSafeBC. Silica (2017)
- Provides an overview of silica dust exposure, related health effects, and strategies to reduce the risk of exposure.
3. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Best practice engineering control guidelines to control worker exposure to respirable crystalline silica during asphalt pavement milling (2015) (PDF)
- Summarizes best practice engineering controls to reduce respirable crystalline silica exposure during asphalt pavement milling in highway construction.
4. Beaudry C, Dion C, Gérin M, Perrault G, Bégin D, Lavoué J. Construction workers’ exposure to crystalline silica: Literature review and analysis (2013) (PDF)
- Identifies the positions and duties with the highest risk in relation to their crystalline silica exposure level and the various means of controlling exposure, including their effectiveness.
5. Government of Alberta. Crystalline silica at the work site (2009) (PDF)
- Summarizes specific measures for preventing exposure to crystalline silica in the workplace, including silica substitutes in abrasive blasting, engineering controls, administrative controls, and personal protective equipment.
6. Meeker JD, Cooper MR, Lefkowitz D, Susi P. “Engineering control technologies to reduce occupational silica exposures in masonry cutting and tuckpointing.” Public Health Rep 2009;124(1):101-111.
- Evaluates the effectiveness of various engineering controls used to reduce crystalline silica exposure in construction.
7. Scholz RC, Slavin TJ, Rowntree K. Control of Silica Exposure in Foundries (2007) (PDF)
- Summarizes engineering controls, work practice controls, and administrative controls for reducing silica exposure in foundries, and provides more detail on process and material handling controls, ventilation of dust sources, and silica exposure control programs.
OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURES - SPECIFIC CARCINOGENS - WELDING FUMES
1. WorkSafeBC. Welding gases & fumes (2019)
- Summarizes information on workplace exposures and tips for choosing risk controls, including elimination or substitution, engineering controls, administrative controls, and personal protective equipment.
2. Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety. Welding – Fumes and Gases (2018)
- Summarizes information on workplace exposures to welding fumes, factors that affect worker exposure, examples of welding gases, and recommendations for limiting exposures.
3. Government of Canada. Guide to health hazards and hazard control measures with respect to welding and allied processes (2015)
- Provides guidance on the health hazards of welding fumes, exposure limits, regulatory requirements, and control measures such as ventilation, personal protective equipment, and administrative controls.
4. Lehnert M, Weiss T, Pesch B, Lotz A, Zilch-Schöneweis S, Heinze E, Van Gelder R, Hahn JU, Brüning T; WELDOX Study Group. “Reduction in welding fume and metal exposure of stainless steel welders: an example from the WELDOX study.” Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2014;87(5):483-492.
- Evaluates the effectiveness of using improved exhaust ventilation and welding helmets with purified air supply in the daily routine to reduce exposure to airborne and internal metals in welders.
5. SAFE Work Manitoba. Welding guide (2013) (PDF)
- Provides information on the various hazards associated with welding, including exposure control measures for fumes and vapours.
OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURES - SPECIFIC CARCINOGENS - WOOD DUST
1. Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety. Wood dust – Health effects (2017)
- Provides information on workplace exposures wood dust, strategies for controlling exposure, and the recommended respirators.
2. Health and Safety Executive. Wood dust: Controlling the risks (2012) (PDF)
- Discusses using local exhaust ventilation to control wood dust exposure in the workplace. Local exhaust ventilation is discussed in terms of general requirements, design and management, and maintenance.
3. Government of Alberta. Health effects from exposure to wood dust (2009) (PDF)
- Outlines occupational wood dust exposure, including health effects for specific wood types. Factors that affect exposure to wood dust and methods for controlling exposure are also discussed.
4. Brosseau LM, Parker DL, Lazovich D, Milton T, Dugan S. “Designing intervention effectiveness studies for occupational health and safety: The Minnesota Wood Dust Study.” Am J Ind Med 2002;41(1):54-61.
- Highlights the use of the PRECEDE-PROCEED model as a framework for designing occupational interventions.
5. Lazovish D, Parker DL, Brosseau LM, Milton FT, Dugan SK, Pan W, Hock L. “Effectiveness of a worksite intervention to reduce an occupational exposure: The Minnesota Wood Dust Study.” Am J Public Health 2002;92(9):1498-1505.
- A case study exploring a worksite intervention that, despite not substantially reducing wood dust concentrations, highlights the complexity of undertaking intervention research in an occupational setting and reveals key considerations for future occupational interventions.
We’re also in the process of building a list of organizations that either make exposure reduction recommendations or have their own compilations of resources to offer. A few of these organizations include:
- The Occupational Cancer Research Centre
- The Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety
- The Toxics Use Reduction Institute (US)
Interested in exposure reduction resources for a substance not found in this list? Have you come across some useful resources that you think would add value to our list? Please get in touch with us: firstname.lastname@example.org.
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The CAREX Canada team offers two regular newsletters: the biannual e-Bulletin summarizing information on upcoming webinars, new publications, and updates to estimates and tools; and the monthly Carcinogens in the News, a digest of media articles, government reports, and academic literature related to the carcinogens we’ve classified as important for surveillance in Canada. Sign up for one or both of these newsletters below.
School of Population and Public Health
University of British Columbia
370A - 2206 East Mall
Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3
As a national organization, our work extends across borders into many Indigenous lands throughout Canada. We gratefully acknowledge that our host institution, the University of British Columbia Point Grey campus, is located on the traditional, ancestral and unceded territories of the xʷməθkʷəy̓əm (Musqueam) people.