1-Bromopropane

1-Bromopropane

1-Bromopropane Profile

INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS POSSIBLE CARCINOGEN (IARC 2B)

CAS no. 106-94-5
IARC MONOGRAPH VOL. 115, 2018 (GROUP 2B)

1-Bromopropane Profile

General Information

1-Bromopropane is an organic solvent that is a colourless or pale yellow liquid with a strong, sweet odour.[1]  It is used as a solvent in many industries, and in the past it has also been used as a chemical intermediate to produce other substances, including pesticides and fragrances.[2] 1-Bromopropane may also be referred to as propyl bromide or n-propyl bromide. There are numerous other synonyms and product names; see the Hazardous Substances Data Bank for more information.[3]

In 2016, 1-bromopropane was classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B).[1] This decision was based on sufficient evidence of the carcinogenicity of 1-bromopropane in experimental animal studies.[1] Other health impacts associated with 1-bromopropane exposure include neurological deficits with low-level exposure (e.g. decreased vibration sensation, burning or prickling sensation in the extremities), neurotoxic effects with higher level exposure (e.g. incoordination, inability to walk, and nerve damage), and nose and throat irritation. [2,4] Adverse reproductive effects are also suspected.[2]

Regulations and Guidelines

Occupational exposure limits (OEL)[5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19]

Canadian Jurisdictions OEL (ppm)
Canada Labour Code 0.1
AB, NB 10
BC 0.1, r
MB, NL, NS, NU, ON PE 0.1
NT, SK 10 [TWA]
20 [stel]
QC, YT N/A
Other Jurisdictions OEL (ppm)
ACGIH 2020 TLV 0.1
ppm = parts per million
r = reproductive toxin
N/A = not available
ACGIH = American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists
TLV = threshold limit value

Canadian environmental guidelines and standards

1-Bromopropane is listed on Health Canada’s Domestic Substances List as a substance requiring additional consideration.[20] It was not included in other Canadian government guidelines, standards, or chemical listings reviewed.

Main Uses

1-Bromopropane is used as a solvent in the spray adhesive industry to manufacture polyurethane foam cushions, as a vapour degreasing agent, and as a cleaning solvent for metals, plastics, optical and electronic components.[1,2] It has also been used as a dry cleaning solvent, but its use for this purpose has been declining, at least in the United States.[21] In the past, 1-bromopropane has also used as a chemical intermediate to produce pesticides, fragrances, flavours, and pharmaceuticals.[2]

Canadian Production and Trade

Canadian production and trade data were not identified.

In the United States, production of 1-bromopropane has increased over the last 10 years because it is a common substitute for other substances that are ozone-depleting (e.g. hydrochlorofluorocarbons) or and more harmful to health (e.g. tetrachloroethylene).[2] In 2012, 1-bromopropane was reported to be manufactured by at least 21 companies globally, including at least 1 in the United States.[22]

Environmental Exposures Overview

Inhalation exposure may occur among the general population living close to facilities that use 1-bromopropane, as it may be released during aerosol applications (e.g. in degreasing operations).[2,23,24]

Little data on ambient air levels of 1-bromopropane exist. In 2014, 1-bromopropane was detected in one of the US EPA’s monitoring locations, with levels of 0.14-0.16 ppb.[25] 1-Bromopropane is not reportable to the National Pollutant Release Inventory.[26]

A search of the US Household Products Database yielded the following results, which can help us understand the potential for exposure to 1-bromopropane in Canada:

US Household Products 2021[27]
Search Term # Products Product Type
‘1-bromopropane’ 2 Floor conditioner (2)

 

Occupational Exposures Overview

Workers are primarily exposed through inhalation and dermal contact.

Aerosol applications of 1-bromopropane lead to higher dermal and inhalation exposures among workers. Exposure to 1-bromopropane is highest when it is used as a spray adhesive, but other applications may also lead to exposure (e.g. during production, degreasing operations, adhesives manufacturing, and dry cleaning).[2,23,28,29]

US workplace monitoring studies have found that the air concentration of 1-bromopropane may be considerable. For example, in a furniture foam cushion manufacturing site, workers who were responsible for the spraying adhesives were exposed to time weighted averages of 92 to 108 ppm, while other workers within the industry (responsible for non-spraying tasks such as stuffing pillows, operating sewing machines, etc.) were exposed to 10.5 to 11 ppm.[29,30] Engineering controls are effective at reducing workers’ exposures; after building spray booth enclosures and improving local and general ventilation, workers’ exposure at one spray adhesive foam cushion plant decreased from 170 ppm (geometric mean, range 60-381 ppm) to 19 ppm (range 1.2-58 ppm).[31]

Sources

Photo: Free Stock photos by Vecteezy

1. International Agency for Research on Cancer. Monograph Vol 115: Some Industrial Chemicals. (2018)
2. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Toxicological Profile for 1-Bromopropane (2017) (PDF)
3. National Library of Medicine. PubChem Hazardous Substances Data Bank: Acrolein (2021)
4. Ichihara G, Kitoh J, Li W, Ding X, Ichihara S, Takeuchi Y. “Neurotoxicity of 1-bromopropane: Evidence from animal experiments and human studies.” J Adv Res 2012;3(2):91-98.
10. Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. Regulation 5,12 Occupational Health and Safety Regulations (2018)
11. Government of the Northwest Territories. Occupational Health and Safety Regulations, R-039-2015 (2020) (PDF)
13. The Canadian Legal Information Institute (CanLII). Government of Nunavut’s Occupational Health and Safety Regulations, Nu Reg 003-2016 (2010)
15. Government of Prince Edward Island. Occupational Health and Safety Act Regulations Chapter 0-1 (2013) (PDF)
17. Government of Saskatchewan. The Occupational Health and Safety Regulations, 1996 (2016) (PDF)
18. The Canadian Legal Information Institute (CanLII). Yukon’s Occupational Health Regulations, O.I.C. 1986/164 (2020) (PDF)
19. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Annotated PELs (2020)
22. National Toxicology Program. Report on carcinogens. Monograph on 1-bromopropane (2013) (PDF)
23. Blando JD, Schill DP, De La Cruz MP, Zhang L, Zhang J. “Preliminary study of propyl bromide exposure among New Jersey dry cleaners as a result of a pending ban on perchloroethylene.” J Air Waste Manag Assoc 2010;60(9):1049-1056.
24. National Toxicology Program. 14th Report on Carcinogens: 1-Bromopropane (2016) (PDF)
26. Government of Canada. NPRI Data Search (2021)
30. Majersik JJ, Caravati EM, Steffens JD. “Severe neurotoxicity associated with exposure to the solvent 1-bromopropane (n-propyl bromide).” Clin Toxicol. 2007;45(3):270-276.

 

Subscribe to our newsletters

The CAREX Canada team offers two regular newsletters: the biannual e-Bulletin summarizing information on upcoming webinars, new publications, and updates to estimates and tools; and the monthly Carcinogens in the News, a digest of media articles, government reports, and academic literature related to the carcinogens we’ve classified as important for surveillance in Canada. Sign up for one or both of these newsletters below.

CAREX Canada

School of Population and Public Health

University of British Columbia
Vancouver Campus
370A - 2206 East Mall
Vancouver, BC  V6T 1Z3
CANADA

© 2022 CAREX Canada
Simon Fraser University

1-Bromopropane – Resources

1-Bromopropane Resources

Tools

Publications

Videos

Exposure Reduction

Our team has performed a detailed scan of exposure control resources and assembled a compilation of key publications and resources. These are organized by type of exposure (environmental or occupational) and by specificity (general or carcinogen-specific). Please visit our Exposure Reduction Resources page to view.

We also recommend exploring the Prevention Policies Directory, a freely-accessible online tool offering information on policies related to cancer and chronic disease prevention. Providing summaries of the policies and direct access to the policy documents, the Directory allows users to search by carcinogen, risk factor, jurisdiction, geographical location, and document type. For questions about this resource, please contact a member of the Prevention Team at the Canadian Partnership Against Cancer at primary.prevention@partnershipagainstcancer.ca.

Subscribe to our newsletters

The CAREX Canada team offers two regular newsletters: the biannual e-Bulletin summarizing information on upcoming webinars, new publications, and updates to estimates and tools; and the monthly Carcinogens in the News, a digest of media articles, government reports, and academic literature related to the carcinogens we’ve classified as important for surveillance in Canada. Sign up for one or both of these newsletters below.

CAREX Canada

School of Population and Public Health

University of British Columbia
Vancouver Campus
370A - 2206 East Mall
Vancouver, BC  V6T 1Z3
CANADA

© 2022 CAREX Canada
Simon Fraser University

1,2-Dichloroethane

1,2-Dichloroethane

1,2-Dichloroethane Profile

INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS  Possible Carcinogen (IARC 2B)

CAS No. 107-06-2
IARC Monograph Vol. 71, 1999 (Group 2B)

1,2-Dichloroethane Profile

General Information

1,2-Dichloroethane is a clear, colourless, oily liquid with a chloroform-like pleasant odour[1] and volatile properties.[2] It is an important industrial chemical, particularly when used as an intermediate in producing polyvinyl chloride.[2]

1,2-Dichloroethane may also be referred to as ethylene dichloride.[1] There are numerous other synonyms and product names; see Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB) for more information.[3]

1,2-Dichloroethane is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as Group 2B, possibly carcinogenic to humans, based on evidence in experimental animals.[4] Studies in mice and rats showed an association between exposure to 1,2-dichloroethane and an increased incidence of tumours at various sites, including the stomach, lung, liver, mammary gland, and uterus.[2] Although excesses of some cancers were observed in epidemiological studies, results specific to 1,2-dichloroethane are inconclusive due to potential exposure to multiple compounds.[4]

Ingestion and/or inhalation exposure to high levels of 1,2-dichloroethane may also cause adverse health effects in the lungs, kidneys, liver, and nervous system.[2]

Regulations and Guidelines

Occupational exposure limits (OEL) [5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19]

Canadian Jurisdictions OEL (ppm)
Canada Labour Code 10
BC, QC 1
2 [stel]
AB, MB, ON, NL, PE, NB, NS 10
SK, NU 10
20 [stel]
YT 50
75 [stel]
NT 10
15 [stel]
Other Jurisdiction OEL (ppm)
ACGIH 2020 TLV 10
ppm = parts per million
stel = short term exposure limit (15 min. maximum)
ACGIH = American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists
TLV = threshold limit value

Canadian environmental guidelines and standards*

Jurisdiction Limit Year
Drinking Water Guidelines (Canada, BC) and Standards (ON, QC, SK**) 0.005 mg/L 2003-2020[20,21,22,23,24]
BC’s Contaminated Sites Regulation, BC Reg 375/96 Sets soil standards for the protection of human health:
Agricultural and low density residential sites: 75 μg/g
Urban park and high density residential sites: 150 μg/g
Commercial and industrial sites: 350 μg/g

 

Drinking water: 5 μg/L

Sets vapour standards for the protection of human health:
Agricultural, urban park, residential uste standard: 7 μg/m3
Commercial use standard: 20 μg/m3
Industrial use standard: 65 μg/m3
Parkade use standard: 55 μg/m3

2016[25]
Ontario Ambient Air Quality Criteria Annual: 0.4 µg/m3
24-hour: 2 µg/m3
2016[26]
Ontario’s Air Pollution – Local Air Quality Regulation Standards 24-hour: 2 µg/m3; Discharge of 1,2-dichloroethane into the air that leads to levels exceeding the 24-hour standard is prohibited 2020[27]
*Standards are legislated and legally enforceable, while guidelines (including Ontario ambient air quality criteria) describe concentrations of contaminants in the environment (e.g. air, water) that are protective against adverse health, environmental, or aesthetic (e.g. odour) effects
** Interim maximum acceptable concentration

Canadian agencies/organizations

Agency Designation/Position Year
Health Canada DSL – low priority substance (already risk managed) 2006[28]
CEPA Schedule 1, paragraph ‘c’ (human health) 1999[29]
CCME National Classification System for Contaminated Sites High hazard, potential human carcinogen 2008[30]
Environment Canada’s National Pollutant Release Inventory Reportable to NPRI if manufactured, processed, or otherwise used at quantities greater than 10 tonnes or if released at quantities greater than 1 tonne of 10-tonne total VOC air release 2016[31]
DSL = domestic substance list
CEPA = Canadian Environmental Protection Agency
CCME = Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment

1,2-Dichloroethane was not included in other Canadian government guidelines, standards, or chemical listings reviewed.

Main Uses

1,2-Dichloroethane is used primarily to produce vinyl chloride monomer,[1] which is then used to make polyvinyl chloride (PVC). A small quantity of 1,2-dichloroethane is used to produce compounds including ethylenediamines, tri- and tetrachloroethene, aziridines, and various chlorinated solvents used for extracting and cleaning.[2,32]

The use of 1,2-dichloroethane as a lead scavenging agent in gasoline is declining,[3] although the extent of its current use in aircraft fuel is not clear.[32] Historically, 1,2-dichloroethane was used in ore flotation and metal degreasing, as a grain, household and soil fumigant,[2] and as a solvent to clean textiles and process pharmaceuticals.[1]

Canadian Production and Trade

Production and trade

Activity Quantity Year
Export 0 2021[33]
Import 10 t 2021[33]
t = tonne

Environmental Exposures Overview

The main source of exposure to 1,2-dichloroethane for the general population is indoor air.[34,35] 1,2-Dichloroethane has rarely been detected in food and there is low potential for bioaccumulation.[35,36] Exposure may also occur by consuming contaminated water, but because 1,2-dichloroethane evaporates quickly from water into air, this risk is decreased.[2,35]

The main sources of 1,2-dichloroethane emissions in Canada were from its manufacture and distribution, and its use in producing vinyl chloride.[2,35,37] Hazardous waste sites are also a source of emissions.[2]

Under CEPA’s lifecycle management requirements, Dow Chemical Canada Inc’s production and storage locations were monitored from 2001-2004. This monitoring recorded a 34% reduction (3,957 kg) in 1,2-dichloroethane emissions at Dow’s Fort Saskatchewan plant and a 54% reduction (1,253 kg) from the North Vancouver facility.[38]

Ambient air surveys conducted from 1988-1990 in 12 Canadian cities across six provinces found mean levels of 1,2-dichloroethane ranging from 0.07-0.28 µg/m3.[34] The mean concentration of 1,2-dichloroethane from a 1991 national pilot study of residential indoor air (750 residences, 10 provinces) was 1.8 µg/m3.[34] A more recent personal monitoring study conducted in 2005-2006 in Windsor, Ontario, found levels ranging from 0.080-0.265 µg/m3 indoors, and 0.034-0.046 µg/m3 outdoors.[35] Canadians’ total daily intake of 1,2-dichloroethane has been estimated to be 0.43-0.70 µg/kg-body weight/day.[34]

In the past, household products such as cleaning products, pesticides, and carpet/wallpaper glues contained 1,2-dichloroethane.[2,35] Currently, no household products in the U.S. Household Products Database were listed with 1,2-dichloroethane as an ingredient.[39] A search of the National Pollutant Reporting Inventory (NPRI) yielded the following results on current potential for exposure to 1,2-dichloroethane in Canada:

NPRI database

NPRI 2015[40]
Substance name: ‘1,2-Dichloroethane’
Category Quantity Industry
Released into Environment 0.284 t Chemical manufacturing,
waste treatment and disposal (5 facilities)
Disposed of 0.047 t
Sent to off-site recycling None
t = tonne

Occupational Exposures Overview

Inhalation is the most important route of occupational exposure, although there is potential for ingestion and dermal contact.[1]

CAREX Canada estimates that approximately 2,000 Canadian workers are exposed to 1,2-dichloroethane. The largest industrial groups exposed are basic chemical manufacturing followed by warehousing and storage. Other significant industries associated with 1,2-dichloroethane exposures include management, scientific and technical consulting services; remediation and management of waste; and soap, cleaning compound, and toilet preparation manufacturing. The largest exposure groups by occupation are chemical plant machine operators, material handlers, and central control and process operators for petroleum, gas, and chemical processing.

For more information, see the occupational exposure estimate for 1,2-dichloroethane.

Sources

Photo: Wikimedia Commons, Paul Goyette

1. National Toxicology Profile (NTP). 14th report on carcinogens for 1,2-Dichloroethane (2016) (PDF)
2. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Toxicological Profile for 1,2-Dichloroethane (2001) (PDF)
3. US National Library of Medicine. Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB) (2001) (Search term: ‘1,2-Dichloroethane’)
4. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Monograph summary, Volume 71 (1999) (PDF)
10. Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. Regulation 5,12 Occupational Health and Safety Regulations (2018)
11. Government of the Northwest Territories. Occupational Health and Safety Regulations, R-039-2015 (2020) (PDF)
13. The Canadian Legal Information Institute (CanLII). Government of Nunavut’s Occupational Health and Safety Regulations, Nu Reg 003-2016 (2010)
15. Government of Prince Edward Island. Occupational Health and Safety Act Regulations Chapter 0-1 (2013) (PDF)
17. Government of Saskatchewan. The Occupational Health and Safety Regulations, 1996 (2016) (PDF)
18. The Canadian Legal Information Institute (CanLII). Yukon’s Occupational Health Regulations, O.I.C. 1986/164 (2020) (PDF)
19. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Annotated PELs (2020)
21. Government of British Columbia. Source Drinking Water Quality Guidelines (2020) (PDF)
22. The Canadian Legal Information Institute (CanLII). Ontario Drinking Water Quality Standards, O Reg 169/03 (2020)
23. The Canadian Legal Information Institute (CanLII). Regulation respecting the quality of drinking water, CQLR c Q-2, r 40 (2020)
25. Government of British Columbia. Contaminated Sites Regulation B.C. Reg. 375/96 (2019)
26. Government of Ontario. Ontario’s Ambient Air Quality Criteria (2019)
29. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA). Toxic Substances List (2016)
30. Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME). National Classification System for Contaminated Sites (2008) (PDF)
32. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). SIDS Initial Assessment Report for 14th SIAM, UNEP Publications (2002) (PDF)
33. International Trade Centre. TradeMap (2021) (Free subscription required)
34. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA). Priority Substances List assessment report CEPA for 1,2-Dichloroethane (1994) (PDF)
37. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA). Canada Gazette – Export of Substances under the Rotterdam Convention(2002)
38. Environmental Performance Agreement (EPA). EPA with Dow Chemical Canada (2016)
39. US National Library of Medicine. Household Products Database (2017) (Search term: ‘1,2-Dichloroethane’)
40. Environment and Climate Change Canada. National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) Facility Search (2019) (Substance name: ‘1,2-dichloroethane’)

    

Other Resources

  1. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). ToxFAQs Sheet for 1,2-Dichloroethane (2010) (PDF)
  2. Government of Canada. 1,2-Dichloroethane Document (1987) (PDF)
  3. World Health Organization (WHO). Water Sanitation and Health: Environmental Levels and Human Exposure
  4. World Health Organization. Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality. Fourth edition. (2011) (PDF)
  5. Ministry of the Environment Ontario. Ontario Drinking Water Surveillance Program Summary Report for 2000, 2001, and 2002(PDF)

Subscribe to our newsletters

The CAREX Canada team offers two regular newsletters: the biannual e-Bulletin summarizing information on upcoming webinars, new publications, and updates to estimates and tools; and the monthly Carcinogens in the News, a digest of media articles, government reports, and academic literature related to the carcinogens we’ve classified as important for surveillance in Canada. Sign up for one or both of these newsletters below.

CAREX Canada

School of Population and Public Health

University of British Columbia
Vancouver Campus
370A - 2206 East Mall
Vancouver, BC  V6T 1Z3
CANADA

© 2022 CAREX Canada
Simon Fraser University

1,2-Dichloroethane – Occupational Exposures

1,2-Dichloroethane Occupational Exposures

1,2-Dichloroethane Occupational Exposures

Overview

Inhalation is the most important route of occupational exposure, although there is potential for ingestion and dermal contact.[1] CAREX Canada estimates that approximately 2,000 Canadian workers are exposed to 1,2-dichloroethane.

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The largest industrial groups exposed are basic chemical manufacturing followed by warehousing and storage. Other significant industries associated with 1,2-dichloroethane exposures include management, scientific and technical consulting services; remediation and management of waste; and soap, cleaning compound, and toilet preparation manufacturing. The largest exposure groups by occupation are chemical plant machine operators, material handlers, and central control and process operators for petroleum, gas, and chemical processing.

Prevalence Estimate

Results show that nearly 2,000 Canadians are exposed to 1,2-dichloroethane in their workplaces; 77% of these workers are male.

The largest industrial groups exposed are basic chemical manufacturing, warehousing and storage, and management of scientific and technical consulting services. Other important industries associated with 1,2-dichloroethane exposure involve remediation and management of waste and soap, cleaning compound, and toilet preparation manufacturing. When exposure is examined by occupation, the largest exposed group is chemical plant machine operators (400), material handlers (320), and central control and process operators for petroleum, gas, and chemical processing (290), and other labourers in processing, manufacturing and utilities (225).

The number of workers exposed to 1,2-dichloroethane remained approximately the same from 2006 to 2016 (a 1% increase).

Workers exposed to 1,2-dichloroethane by industry in 2016

Workers exposed to 1,2-dichloroethane by region in 2016

Click the second tab to view total number of workers exposed.

* = < 50 workers
Methods and Data

Our Occupational Approach page outlines the general approach used to calculate prevalence and exposure level estimates for workplace exposures.

Data Sources

Data used in developing the occupational estimates for 1,2-dichloroethane were collected from several sources:

  1. The Canadian Workplace Exposure Database (CWED) contains less than 100 measurements for 1,2-dichloroethane exposure. These measurements were collected during the years 1981 to 2004 in Ontario and British Columbia workplaces.
  2. Canadian and US scientific peer reviewed publications that addressed 1,2-dichloroethane exposure in Canada and the United States.
  3. Grey literature including technical reports from governments and international bodies.

Prevalence Estimate Method

CAREX defines exposure to 1,2-dichloroethane as inhalation at work to levels significantly exceeding non-occupational background levels.

To determine the number of workers potentially exposed to 1,2-dichloroethane at work, CAREX occupational exposure experts used methods previously established in other peer-reviewed CAREX projects in Europe. A series of steps were taken to assign exposure proportions to occupations and industries at risk of exposure to 1,2-dichloroethane.

  1. Occupations and industries at risk of possible exposure to 1,2-dichloroethane were identified using any combination of data sources described above.
  2. The total number of workers in each identified occupation and industry intersection was obtained from Statistics Canada 2016 census data.
  3. A percentage of workers exposed was assigned to that occupation and industry intersection. Percentages were determined by consultation with existing evidence in the data sources, previously established methods from the Europe CAREX estimates and the expert judgement of CAREX occupational hygienists.
  4. The number of workers in the identified group is multiplied by the assigned percentage to calculate the prevalence estimate of workers exposed to 1,2-dichloroethane.
Sources

1. National Toxicology Profile (NTP). 14th report on carcinogens for 1,2-Dichloroethane (2016) (PDF)

Subscribe to our newsletters

The CAREX Canada team offers two regular newsletters: the biannual e-Bulletin summarizing information on upcoming webinars, new publications, and updates to estimates and tools; and the monthly Carcinogens in the News, a digest of media articles, government reports, and academic literature related to the carcinogens we’ve classified as important for surveillance in Canada. Sign up for one or both of these newsletters below.

CAREX Canada

School of Population and Public Health

University of British Columbia
Vancouver Campus
370A - 2206 East Mall
Vancouver, BC  V6T 1Z3
CANADA

© 2022 CAREX Canada
Simon Fraser University

1,2-Dichloroethane – Resources

1,2-Dichloroethane Resources

Tools

Publications

Videos

Exposure Reduction

Our team has performed a detailed scan of exposure control resources and assembled a compilation of key publications and resources. These are organized by type of exposure (environmental or occupational) and by specificity (general or carcinogen-specific). Please visit our Exposure Reduction Resources page to view.

We also recommend exploring the Prevention Policies Directory, a freely-accessible online tool offering information on policies related to cancer and chronic disease prevention. Providing summaries of the policies and direct access to the policy documents, the Directory allows users to search by carcinogen, risk factor, jurisdiction, geographical location, and document type. For questions about this resource, please contact a member of the Prevention Team at the Canadian Partnership Against Cancer at primary.prevention@partnershipagainstcancer.ca.

Subscribe to our newsletters

The CAREX Canada team offers two regular newsletters: the biannual e-Bulletin summarizing information on upcoming webinars, new publications, and updates to estimates and tools; and the monthly Carcinogens in the News, a digest of media articles, government reports, and academic literature related to the carcinogens we’ve classified as important for surveillance in Canada. Sign up for one or both of these newsletters below.

CAREX Canada

School of Population and Public Health

University of British Columbia
Vancouver Campus
370A - 2206 East Mall
Vancouver, BC  V6T 1Z3
CANADA

© 2022 CAREX Canada
Simon Fraser University