METALS – MULTIPLE CLASSIFICATIONS (IARC 2A, 2B)
- A soft, highly malleable, and ductile metal that is insoluble in water; forms both organic and inorganic compounds
- Associated cancers: Lung, stomach, kidney, brain, and nervous system cancers (inorganic lead compounds, limited evidence)
- Most important routes of exposure: Inhalation, ingestion
- Uses: Found in lead-acid storage batteries (ex. for vehicles, hospital emergency systems, computers, and forklifts) and paint primer for iron and steel (lead oxide)
- Occupational exposures: Approx. 273,000 Canadians are exposed at work, primarily welders and police officers
- Environmental exposures: Via indoor dust (ex. paint chips and soil), consumer products (ex. toys, health care products, and paint), and drinking water (ex. in older homes and lead piping)
- Fast fact: In 2015, lead recycling accounted for 53% of total refined production in Canada (mostly from car batteries).
Elemental lead is a soft, highly malleable, and ductile metal that is insoluble in water. Lead rarely exists naturally in its pure form. It is typically found in low concentrations in the earth’s crust as the mineral galena (lead sulfide). Lead forms both inorganic and organic compounds with many substances, including acetate, arsenic, antimony, chlorine, oxygen, and phosphate. There are numerous synonyms and product names for lead; see the Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB) for more information.[3,4]
In 1987, elemental lead and inorganic lead compounds were classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as Group 2B, possibly carcinogenic to humans. Organic lead compounds were classified as Group 3, not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity to humans. In 2006, IARC re-examined the evidence regarding the carcinogenicity of inorganic and organic lead compounds. Based on new evidence reviewed, IARC reclassified inorganic lead compounds, upgrading their classification to Group 2A, probably carcinogenic to humans. Organic lead compounds remains in Group 3, and elemental lead remains in Group 2B.
Despite the acknowledged difficulty in controlling for confounding variables, IARC’s decision to reclassify inorganic lead compounds was based on consistently observed increases in several cancers, including lung, stomach, kidney, brain, and nervous system cancer. Some of these epidemiologic studies were based on small numbers. There was also animal data suggesting a causal relationship between inorganic lead exposure and renal cancer, and fairly strong animal data for brain cancer.
Other health impacts of lead exposure are well documented. They include effects on the neurological, cardiovascular, and hematological systems. Reproductive effects, including miscarriage and preterm delivery in women, and decreased fertility in men are also associated with moderately high levels of lead exposure.
The effect of lead is the same regardless of whether exposure occurs through inhalation or ingestion. The lead literature is unique in having a large number of studies examining outcomes in children. The developing nervous systems of children are particularly sensitive to lead and even small amounts can be hazardous prenatally and in young children.
Regulations and Guidelines
Occupational exposure limits (OEL)[8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22]
|Canadian Jurisdictions||OEL* (mg/m3)|
|Canada Labour Code||0.05|
|BC, AB, MB, QC,
NL, PEI, NB, NS
|ON||0.05 [sk, elemental lead, inorganic and organic compounds of lead, as Pb]
0.10 [sk, tetraethyl lead, as Pb]
0.3 [stel, sk, tetraethyl lead, as Pb]
|NT, NU, SK||0.05
|Other Jurisdiction||OEL* (mg/m3)|
|ACGIH 2020 TLV||0.05|
* For lead and inorganic lead compounds
mg/m3 = milligrams per cubic meter
sk = skin (organic compounds)
stel = short term exposure limit (15 min. maximum)
ACGIH = American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists
TLV = threshold limit value
Canadian environmental guidelines and standards*
|Canada and BC Drinking Water Guidelines||0.005 mg/L, ALARA (MAC)||2019-2020
|ON, QC, SK Drinking Water Standards and MB Drinking Water Guidelines||0.010 mg/L (MAC)||2003-2020
|Ontario Ambient Air Quality Criteria||30 Day: 0.2(+) µg/m3||2016|
|24 hour: 0.5 µg/m3||2016|
|Alberta Ambient Air Quality Objectives||1 hour: 1.5 µg/m3||1999|
|Manitoba Ambient Air Quality Guideline||24 hour: 2 µg/m3 (MAC)
30 day: 0.7 µg/m3 (MAC)
|Quebec’s Clean Air Regulation||1 year limit: 0.1 µg/m3; Prohibited discharge into the air if the concentration of lead exceeds the standard||2011|
|Ontario’s Air Pollution – Local Air Quality Regulation||24-hour standard: 0.5 µg/m3
30-day standard: 0.2 µg/m3; Prohibited discharge into the air if the concentration of lead exceeds the standard
|List of contaminants and other adulterating substances in foods||Maximum levels:
Edible bone meal: 10 ppm
tomato paste and sauce: 1.5 ppm
Fish protein, whole tomatoes: 0.5 ppm
Beverages: 0.2 ppm, applied to products as consumed
Evaporated and condensed milk: 0.15 ppm
Infant formula: 0.01 ppm, applied to products as consumed
Fruit juice; fruit nectar: 0.05 ppm, applied to products as consumed
Water in sealed containers: 0.01 ppm
|Cosmetic Ingredient Hotlist||Not permitted||2004|
|BC’s Contaminated Sites Regulation, BC Reg 375/96||Sets soil standards for the protection of human health:
Agricultural, low and high density residential, and urban park sites: 120 μg/g
Commercial sites: 150 μg/g
Industrial sites: 4,000 μg/g
Drinking water: 10 µg/L
|Children’s Jewellery Regulations – SOR/2018-82 (Section 2)||Children’s jewellery, when tested using good laboratory practices, must not contain more than 90 mg/kg of lead.||2018|
|Gasoline Regulations (SOR/90-247)||The maximum concentration of lead in gasoline produced, imported or sold in Canada is 5 mg/L||2008|
*Standards are legislated and legally enforceable, while guidelines (including Ontario ambient air quality criteria) describe concentrations of contaminants in the environment (e.g. air, water) that are protective against adverse health, environmental, or aesthetic (e.g. odour) effects
mg/L = milligrams per litre
MAC = maximum acceptable concentration
ALARA = as low as reasonable achievable
(+) = arithmetic mean
µg/m3 = micrograms per cubic metre
μg/g = micrograms per gram
ppm = parts per million
|Health Canada||DSL – low priority substance (already risk managed)||2006|
|Environment Canada’s National Pollutant Release Inventory||Lead and its compounds: NPRI Part (Threshold Category): 1B, Reportable to NPRI if manufactured, processed, or otherwise used at quantities greater than: 50 kg . Total of pure lead and the equivalent weight of lead contained in any cound, alloy or mixture. Excludes lead (and its compounds) contained in stainless steel, brass or bronze alloys and lead contained in tetraethyl lead (CAS RN 78-00-2).||2016|
DSL = domestic substance list
CEPA = Canadian Environmental Protection Act
Lead and its compounds were not included in other Canadian government guidelines, standards, or chemical listings reviewed.
The primary use of lead is in lead-acid batteries for automobiles and other vehicles (80% of total use).[42,43] Over the past five years, lead-acid storage batteries constituted 75% of global lead consumption. Lead-acid storage batteries are produced for vehicles, emergency systems (hospitals), and for industrial batteries found in computers and fork lifts. Other battery applications include stationary batteries used for backup power.
Lead oxide, or red lead, is the primary paint primer for iron and steel.
Because it is highly dense, lead is suitable for shielding radiation. It is used for this purpose in television, video, and computer screens, as well as in storage containers for nuclear waste and in x-ray shielding aprons.
Lead is also used in: roof sheeting, mostly in Europe; chemical compounds and alloys; and manufacture of cable sheathing, circuit boards, lead shot and ammunition, dyes, varnishes and resins, pigments, automotive parts, explosives, paper coatings, ceramics, and rubber and plastics.[43,44]
Canadian Production and Trade
In 2019, Canada was the 8th leading world producer of lead, producing an estimated 22,608 tonnes of lead in concentrate. Prior to 2013, when the country’s largest lead mine in New Brunswick closed, production was much higher (approximately 60,000 tonnes each year from 2010-2013).
Lead has been mined in every Canadian province but Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Prince Edward Island. The Sullivan mine, which operated in Kimberley, BC for nearly 100 years, closed in 2001. Two Canadian mines produced lead in concentrate form in 2015: Nyrstar NV’s Myra Falls mine in British Columbia, and Trevali Mining Corporation’s Caribou mine in New Brunswick.
Canada operates two primary lead and five recycled lead smelters. The latter smelters recycle significant amounts of used lead-acid batteries; recycled lead production comprised 60% of Canada’s total refined lead metal production in 2019.
Production and trade
|Export||24,152 t of ‘lead ores and concentrates’||2021|
|417 t of ‘lead oxides; red lead and orange lead’||2021|
|202,276 t of ‘unwrought lead’||2021|
|Import||36,460 t of ‘lead ores and concentrates’||2021|
|6,608 t of ‘lead oxides; red lead and orange lead’||2021|
|5,270 t of ‘unwrought lead’||2021|
t = tonne
Environmental Exposures Overview
Environmental exposure to lead can occur through food, drinking water, air, soil, dust, and various consumer products. Ingestion of lead from dust, paint chips, and soil is of concern for young children in particular. The relative contribution to an individual’s exposure will depend on factors such as proximity to a point source, age of home and projects undertaken involving lead-based products. CAREX Canada’s environmental estimates indicate that lead concentrations in indoor air do not result in an increased risk of cancer (low data quality). However, CAREX Canada estimates that lead concentrations in indoor dust result in an increased risk of cancer (moderate data quality).
Food has been a primary contributor of lead exposure in the past. However, since lead solder is no longer used in cans, current levels of exposure through ingesting food are generally low. Lead can enter food grown in contaminated soils, stored in containers with lead-based glazes or in leaded crystal. CAREX Canada estimates that lead concentrations in food or beverages do not result in increased risk of cancer (low data quality).
Certain health care products, folk remedies, and toys (particularly imported toys) may contain lead.
Lead was phased out of paints in Canada, beginning in 1976. Some specialty coatings such as artists’ paints may still contain lead, but all lead-containing products must be labeled. Renovation projects in older homes involving stripping or removing lead-containing paints, particularly using heat, can result in significant exposures.
Most lead was removed from gasoline in the 1970s. Since then, levels in Canadian air have been generally lower, although smelters and refineries can be significant contributors to both outdoor air and soil levels. CAREX Canada estimates that lead concentrations in outdoor air do not result in an increased risk of cancer (moderate data quality).
Lead in drinking water in Canada is generally low. However, lead levels can be higher in older homes and ones with lead solder in the piping. CAREX Canada estimates that lead concentrations in drinking water do not result in an increased risk of cancer (moderate data quality).
Lead is one of the substances selected for the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS), a joint project of Statistics Canada and Health Canada to establish the current level of exposure to environmental contaminants. The second cycle of the survey was completed in 2011 and a second report on human biomonitoring of environmental chemicals was released in April 2013.
The biomonitoring data from the second cycle of the CHMS, which included 6,400 Canadians, found the geometric mean blood concentration for lead to be 1.2 µg/dL. This level is approximately 0.1 µg/dL lower than the average blood lead levels found during the first cycle of the CHMS (completed in 2009) and substantially lower than in 1978, when the national levels were last measured prior to the CHMS. In the third cycle of the CHMS in 2012-2013, the geometric mean was 1.1 µg/L, which was again 0.1 µg/L lower than the previous measurement. Smokers were found to have significantly higher levels of lead in their blood than non-smokers.
In 1978, approximately 27% of Canadians had a blood lead level (BLL) at or above the current recommended intervention level of 10 µg/dL. Today, almost all Canadians have a BLL below the current intervention level. However, recent scientific studies have provided sufficient evidence to suggest that BLLs below 5 µg/dL are associated with adverse health effects. The blood level intervention level is currently under review.
Searches of Environment Canada’s National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) and the US Household Products Database yielded the following results on current potential for exposure to lead in Canada:
NPRI and US Household Products Database
|Substance name: ‘Lead (and its compounds)’|
|Released into Environment||268 t||Foundries, defense services, non-ferrous metal production and processing, metal ore mining, iron and steel mining (611 facilities)|
|Disposed of||17,879 t|
|Sent to off-site recycling||39,391 t|
|US Household Products 2016|
|Results: 14 products|
|Search Term||Quantity||Product Type|
|‘lead’||14||Solder kits (8), motor oils (4),
glazes (1), and pet care (1)
|‘lead compounds, unspecified’||4||Ceramic glazes|
|‘lead acetate’||1||Personal care|
t = tonne
For more information, see the environmental exposure estimate for lead.
Occupational Exposures Overview
Inhalation is the most common route of occupational exposure, followed by ingestion.
CAREX Canada estimates that approximately 273,000 Canadians are exposed to lead in their workplaces. The largest industrial groups exposed include public administration (e.g. police officers), followed by building equipment contractors, and automotive repair and maintenance. In terms of occupation, the two largest exposed groups are welders, followed by police officers. Other large occupational groups that are at higher risk to lead exposure include auto mechanics, plumbers, and steamfiiters, pipefitters, and sprinkler system installers.
Additional occupations that are exposed include workers involved in mining, lead smelting and refining industries, battery production or recycling, steel welding or cutting operations, construction, rubber products and plastics industries, printing industries, and firing ranges.
For more information, see the occupational exposure estimate for lead.
Photo: Wikimedia Commons, Alchemist-hp
- Northern Contaminants Program (NCP). List of NCP publications.
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