Creosotes Profile

INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS  PROBABLE CARCINOGEN (IARC 2A)

CAS No. 8001-58-9
IARC Monograph Vol. 35, Suppl. 7 (Group 2A)
IARC Monograph Vol. 92, 2010 (Group 2A)

Creosotes Profile

General Information

“Creosotes” are complex and variable mixtures made from distilled coal. They are composed of more than three hundred compounds, though only a limited number of those compounds are present in amounts greater than 1%.[1] Creosotes derived from distilling coal are often referred to as coal-tar creosotes and are used to protect wood from fungi, insects, and marine organisms.[2]

Wood creosotes are a separate group of chemicals derived from the resin of creosote bush leaves, or from beechwood leaves.[3] Wood creosotes are not considered in this profile, as they are not chemically related to coal-based creosotes. CAREX Canada has evaluated several other substances related to creosotes, including Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Coal-tar & Coal-tar Pitches; please consult these profiles for further information.

Coal-tar creosote is primarily composed of PAHs (up to 90%), with small amounts of phenolics and nitrogen-, sulphur-, and oxygen-containing heterocyclic compounds.[1]

Creosotes derived from coal-tars have been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as Group 2A, probably carcinogenic to humans, based on sufficient evidence in animals and limited evidence in humans.[4,5] Creosotes are skin and lung carcinogens in mice.[4] Human evidence suggests a link between creosote exposure and skin cancer (especially scrotal), but this is based on only a few small studies.[4]

Exposure to creosotes can irritate the skin and respiratory tract.[3]

Regulations and Guidelines

No occupational exposure limits for creosotes were found in the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) or Canadian Occupational Exposure Limit (OEL) guidelines.[6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20] Nunavut and Saskatchewan list creosotes as designated substances.[6,7]

Canadian Environmental Guidelines

Jurisdiction Limit Year
Cosmetic Ingredients Hotlist Not Permitted 2014[21]

Creosote was not included in other Canadian government environmental guidelines reviewed.[22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29]

Canadian Agencies/Organizations

Agency Designation/Position Year
Health Canada DSL – high priority substance
with lowest potential for exposure
2006[30]
CEPA Schedule 1, paragraph ‘a’ 1999[31]
National Classification System
for Contaminated Sites
Rank = “Medium hazard” 2008[32]
Environment Canada’s National 
Pollutant Release Inventory
Reportable to NPRI if released at quantities greater 
than 1 tonne of 10-tonne total VOC air release.
2016[33]
DSL = domestic substance list
CEPA = Canadian Environmental Protection Act

Creosote was not included in other Canadian government chemical listings reviewed.[34]

Main Uses

Coal-tar creosotes are primarily used as heavy-duty wood preservatives on railroad ties, fence posts, marine pilings, utility poles, and outdoor lumber.[3] The service life of creosote-treated wood products is estimated at 40 to 50 years.[35] There are 9 pesticide products registered for use in Canada as a wood preservative or in the manufacture of wood preservatives.[36]

Canadian Production and Trade

Canada is the second-largest producer of treated wood (second to the USA and equal to the UK).[37] In 1999, Canada produced nearly 3.5 million cubic meters of treated wood; about 6% of the wood was treated with creosotes.[37] A 2006 analysis of the treated wood industry in Canada predicted that production will remain stable for the foreseeable future.[37] Approximately 13% of domestically consumed wood products are treated, but only 4% of the production total is treated because most wood exports are untreated.[37]

In 2003, creosote was the most commonly used pesticide in British Columbia. About 2,200 tonnes of creosotes were sold in BC that year, constituting 47% of all pesticides used.[38] Creosote use was not reported in the 2010 report.[39]

Since 2007 Ontario has used 3.6 million cubic metres of creosote-treated wood containing 179,891 tonnes of creosote.[35] A total of 89% of the treated wood was used for railway ties, 8% for treated utility poles, and 3% for highway structures.

In 2016, there were four creosote treatment plants across Canada in Nova Scotia, Quebec, and British Columbia.[40] There have been no operating wood treatment plants in Ontario since the Thunder Bay Plant closure in 2002.[35,40]

Production and Trade

Activity Quantity Year
Export 25,050 t of “creosote oils” 2015[41]
Import 7177 t of “creosote oils” 2015[41]
t = tonne

Environmental Exposures Overview

Sources of environmental exposure include drinking contaminated water, contacting creosote-treated scrap lumber, using creosote treated materials, and living in houses built with creosote treated wood.[3]

In Canada, waste materials containing creosotes arise from two sources: creosote waste products (i.e. railway ties), which accounts for 71% of waste materials by weight; and creosote-contaminated sites (i.e. where creosote is found in soils or groundwater), which accounts for 29% of waste material.[1]

By volume, railway ties are the largest creosote waste product in Canada. Every year the major railways decommission 4.5 million ties which contain an estimated 20,000 tonnes of creosote.[1] Approximately 90% of all railway ties are reused, leaving approximately 2,000 tonnes of waste creosote per year.

A report from 2008 breaks down Ontario’s pattern of creosote disposal methods as follows: 66% sent to the US for incineration (railway ties only), 26% sent to landfills, 8% sent to reuse/recycling.[35] Open burning and sale to third parties is not practiced. Creosote waste products other than railway ties are generated from utility poles, highway timbers, agricultural fence posts, other minor agricultural structures, and possibly wood block floors.[35]

Creosote releases are not reportable to the National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI).[42] No consumer products containing creosotes were found in the US Household Products Database.[43]

Occupational Exposures Overview

The most important routes of occupational exposure to creosotes are inhalation and dermal.[4]

CAREX Canada estimates that approximately 4,800 Canadians are exposed to creosotes in their workplace. The primary industrial groups exposed are within the sawmill and wood preservation industry. Other important exposed groups include the electric power industry, rail transportation, and utility system construction.

The occupational groups with the largest numbers of workers exposed include: labourers in wood, pulp, and paper processing; electrical power line and cable workers; and construction trades helpers and labourers. Other occupations that may also be exposed include fence and bridge construction workers, railroad workers, and site remediation workers.[3]

For more information, see the occupational exposure estimate for creosotes.

Sources

4. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Monograph summary, Supplement 7 (1987) (PDF)
5. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Monograph summary, Volume 92 (2010) (PDF)
6. Government of Saskatchewan. The Occupational Health and Safety Regulations, 1996 (2016) (PDF)
7. The Canadian Legal Information Institute (CanLII). Government of Nunavut’s Occupational Health and Safety Regulations, Nu Reg 003-2016 (2010)
12. Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. Regulation 5,12 Occupational Health and Safety Regulations (2012)
13. Government of the Northwest Territories. Occupational Health and Safety Regulations, R-039-2015 (2016) (PDF)
15. The Canadian Legal Information Institute (CanLII). Yukon’s Occupational Health Regulations, O.I.C. 1986/164 (2012) (PDF)
18. Government of Prince Edward Island. Occupational Health and Safety Act Regulations Chapter 0-1 (2013) (PDF)
20. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Annotated PELs (2018)
21. Health Canada. Cosmetic Ingredient Hotlist (2014)
25. Government of British Columbia. Contaminated Sites Regulation B.C. Reg. 375/96 (2017)
26. The Canadian Legal Information Institute (CanLII). Ontario Drinking Water Quality Standards, O Reg 169/03 (2017)
27. The Canadian Legal Information Institute (CanLII). Regulation respecting the quality of drinking water, CQLR c Q-2, r 40. (2016)
28. Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change. Ontario’s Ambient Air Quality Criteria (2016)
29. Alberta Environment and Parks. Ambient Air Quality Objectives (2017)
30. Health Canada. Prioritization of the DSL (2006)
31. Environment and Climate Change Canada. CEPA List of Toxic Substances (1999)
32. Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME). National Classification System for Contaminated Sites (2008) (PDF)
36. Health Canada. Pesticide Product Label Search (2012)
38. BC Ministry of the Environment. Survey of Pesticide Use in BC (2003) (PDF)
40. Wood Preservation Canada.List of CWCPA Certified Plants in Canada (2016)
41. International Trade Centre. TradeMap (Free subscription required)
42. Environment and Climate Change Canada. National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) Facility Search (Substance name: ‘Creosote’)
43. US National Library of Medicine. Household Products (HPD) (Search term: ‘Creosotes’)

Other Resources

  1. Wood Preservation Canada (WPC). WPC (formerly the Canadian Institute of Treated Wood)
  2. Canadian Wood Preservation Association (CWPA). CWPA
  3. The Canadian Standards Association (CSA). CSA
  4. J.T. Fyles Natural Resources Library. Natural Resources Library (Search term: ‘Creosote’)
  5. International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS). Concise International Chemical Assessment Document (CICAD) 62: Coal Tar Creosote
  6. Government of Canada. Recommendations for the Design and Operations of Wood Preservation Facilities (2013) (PDF)
  7. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Preliminary Risk Assessment for Creosote (2003)
  8. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). ToxFAQs Sheet for Creosote (2002) (PDF)

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