Carbon Tetrachloride Profile

INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS  POSSIBLE CARCINOGEN (IARC 2B)

CAS No. 56-23-5
IARC Monograph Vol. 20, Suppl. 7, Vol. 71; 1999 (Group 2B)

Carbon Tetrachloride Profile

General Information

Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a volatile, colourless liquid with a mild, sweet odour.[1] It may also be referred to as tetrachloromethane or carbon tet.[2] There are numerous other synonyms and product names; see the Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB) for more information.[2]

Carbon tetrachloride has been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as Group 2B, possibly carcinogenic to humans.[3] Workplace studies suggest an association between exposure to CCl4 and an increased incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The strength of the association, however, was statistically weak and inconclusive.[3] In animal studies, carbon tetrachloride caused liver, mammary gland, and adrenal gland cancers in rats and mice.[3]

Additionally, acute CCl4 exposure can cause gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms such as nausea, dizziness, dyspnea, vomiting, as well as liver damage and death in severe cases.[2]

Regulations and Guidelines

Occupational Exposure Limits (OEL)[4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18]

Canadian Jurisdictions OEL (ppm)
Canada Labour Code 5 [sk]
10 [stel]
BC 2 [sk]
AB, MB, NL, NB, NS, PE, QC 5 [sk]
10 [stel]
SK, NT NU ALARA
ON 2 [sk]
3 [stel]
YT 10 [sk]
20 [stel]
Other Jurisdictions OEL (ppm)
ACGIH 2018 TLV 5 [sk]
10 [stel]
ppm = parts per million
sk = easily absorbed through the skin
stel = short term exposure limit (15 min. maximum)
ALARA = as low as reasonably achievable
ACGIH = American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists
TLV = threshold limit value (8 hour maximum)

Canadian Environmental Guidelines

Jurisdiction Limit Year
Canadian Drinking Water Guidelines MAC: 0.002 mg/L 2017[19]
Ontario Drinking Water Standards MAC: 0.002 mg/L 2016[20]
Quebec Drinking Water Standards MAC: 0.005 mg/L 2014[21]
Ontario Ambient Air Quality Criteria 24 hour: 2.4 µg/m3 2016[22]
Health Canada Cosmetics Hotlist Not Permitted 2010[23]
BC’s Contaminated Sites Regulation, 
BC Reg 375/96

Sets soil standards for the protection of human health:
Agricultural and low density residential sites: 150 μg/g
Urban park and high density residential sites: 350 μg/g
Commercial sites: 1,000 μg/g
Industrial sites: 5,000 μg/g

Drinking water: 2 μg/L

Sets vapour standards for the protection of human health:
Agricultural, urban park, residential uste standard: 1.5 μg/m3
Commercial use standard: 5 μg/m3
Industrial use standard: 15 μg/m3
Parkade use standard: 15 μg/m3

2017[24]
MAC = maximum acceptable concentration
mg/L = milligrams per litre
µg/m3 = micrograms per cubic metre

Carbon tetrachloride was not included in other Canadian government environmental guidelines reviewed.[25,26,27]

Canadian Agencies/Organizations

Agency Designation/Position Year
Health Canada DSL – low priority substance; already risk managed 2006[28]
CEPA Schedule 1 2010[29]
Environment Canada’s National Pollutant Release Inventory Reportable to NPRI if manufactured, processed, or otherwise used at quantities greater than 10 tonnes 2016[30]
National Classification System for Contaminated Sites Rank: “High hazard”, potential human carcinogen 2008[31]
DSL = domestic substance list
CEPA = Canadian Environmental Protection Act

Carbon tetrachloride was not included in other Canadian government listings reviewed.[32,33]

Main Uses

Before chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were phased out due to their ozone depleting properties, the major use of carbon tetrachloride was to produce them, including trichlorofluoromethane (Freon 11) and dichlorodifluoromethane (Freon 12).[3,34] CFCs were widely used as refrigerants, aerosol propellants, and solvents.[3]

Carbon tetrachloride was formerly used as a fumigant pesticide for grains.[3] This use ceased in Canada in 1984.[35] It was also used as a solvent, in fire extinguishers, as a dry cleaning agent, and as a degreaser in both industrial and household settings.[34]

In Canada, carbon tetrachloride is no longer produced or used to make any substance that causes ozone depletion. However, use is still permitted for manufacturing other substances.[36]

Canadian Production and Trade

Production and Trade

Activity Quantity Year
Export None 2015[37]
Import 57 t of ‘carbon tetrachloride’ 2015[37]
t = tonne

Environmental Exposures Overview

Carbon tetrachloride does not occur naturally in the environment; therefore, CCl4 present in the environment originates from anthropogenic releases.[2,34] Releases mostly occur directly into the atmosphere (73%).[34] Due to its high volatility, nearly all environmental releases into other media, such as soil and water, end up in the air.[34,38]

Carbon tetrachloride is a persistent chemical in air, with an average half-life of 30 to 100 years.[37] Therefore, it has gradually accumulated in the environment over time[39] and is now ubiquitous in outdoor and indoor air.[38] A Canada-wide survey reported concentrations of CCl4 ranging from 0.34-1.02 µg/m3 (0.60 µg/m3 average) in nearly 7,000 ambient air samples collected across 17 rural and 40 urban sites.[38] Reported indoor air concentrations were similar.

Public exposures are most likely to occur by inhaling contaminated air and consuming contaminated water.[39,38] One survey of 48 homes in Windsor, Ontario found that the levels of CCl4 in indoor air were higher in the summer (mean 0.72 µg/m3) compared to the winter (mean 0.60 µg/m3).[38]

Carbon tetrachloride is also commonly detected in surface water, groundwater and drinking-water.[3,34,38] Concentrations of CCl4 in surface water in Canada are typically below 1 µg/L.[38] Concentrations may be higher in groundwater systems where volatilization and degradation are limited, or if there are effluents from nearby waste or industrial sites.[3,34,38]

Carbon tetrachloride has been found in effluents from a variety of industries, including metal manufacturing and finishing, foundries, paint and ink manufacturing, and petroleum refining.[3] In addition to ingestion, inhalation and dermal exposures are also possible when using contaminated water for bathing and other purposes.[34] Exposure may have occurred in the past through using CCl4-containing consumer products and consuming food fumigated with CCl4.[1] Because CCl4 is no longer used in these applications in Canada, exposures via food and consumer products are considered unlikely.[1,38]

There were no reportable releases of carbon tetrachloride to the National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) in Canada in 2014.[40]

Occupational Exposures Overview

Inhalation is the most important route of exposure to carbon tetrachloride in occupational settings.[34]

In the past, high levels of occupational exposure occurred while using CCl4 as a dry-cleaning agent and grain fumigant.[34,39] Average and peak exposures during dry cleaning operations were measured as high as 338 ppm and 7,100 ppm, respectively.[39] Average CCl4concentrations reported in storage spaces with fumigated grain were mostly well below 5 ppm, but could reach as high as 60 ppm.[34]

Current occupational exposures may occur while using CCl4 in chemical manufacturing processes and in research laboratories.[3]

CAREX Canada has not prioritized carbon tetrachloride for exposure estimate development. This is because the likelihood of exposure in Canadian workers is very low.

Sources

Photo: Wikimedia Commons, Achim Hering

1. World Health Organization (WHO). Environmental Health Criteria 208: Carbon Tetrachloride (1999)
2. US National Library of Medicine. Hazardous Substances Data Bank (Search term: ‘carbon tetrachloride’)
3. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Monograph summary, Volume 71 (1999) (PDF)
5. The Canadian Legal Information Institute (CanLII). Government of Nunavut’s Occupational Health and Safety Regulations, Nu Reg 003-2016 (2010)
7. Government of Prince Edward Island. Occupational Health and Safety Act Regulations Chapter 0-1 (2013) (PDF)
9. Government of Saskatchewan. The Occupational Health and Safety Regulations, 1996 (2016) (PDF)
10. The Canadian Legal Information Institute (CanLII). Yukon’s Occupational Health Regulations, O.I.C. 1986/164 (2012) (PDF)
11. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Annotated PELs (2018)
17. Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. Regulation 5,12 Occupational Health and Safety Regulations (2012)
18. Government of the Northwest Territories. Occupational Health and Safety Regulations, R-039-2015 (2016) (PDF)
20. The Canadian Legal Information Institute (CanLII). Ontario Drinking Water Quality Standards, O Reg 169/03 (2017)
21. Canadian Legal Information Institute (CanLII). Regulation respecting the quality of drinking water, CQLR c Q-2, r 40 (2016)
22. Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change. Ontario’s Ambient Air Quality Criteria (2016)
23. Health Canada. Cosmetic Ingredient Hotlist (2010) (PDF)
24. Government of British Columbia. Contaminated Sites Regulation B.C. Reg. 375/96 (2017)
27. Alberta Environment and Parks. Ambient Air Quality Objectives (2017)
29. Environment and Climate Change Canada. Toxic Substances List – CEPA Schedule 1 (2010)
31. Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME). National Classification System for Contaminated Sites (2008) (PDF)
32. Government of Canada. List of all Challenge Substances (2009)
33. International Joint Commission. Revised Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement of 1978 (1978) (PDF)
34. Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Toxicological Profile for Carbon Tetrachloride (2005) (PDF)
35. Environment and Climate Change Canada. Ozone Depleting Substances (2010)
37. International Trade Centre. TradeMap (Free subscription required)
39. National Toxicology Program (NTP). 14th Report on Carcinogens for Carbon Tetrachloride (2016) (PDF)
40. Environment and Climate Change Canada. National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) Facility Search (Substance name: ‘carbon tetrachloride’)

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