Beryllium Occupational Exposures

Beryllium Occupational Exposures


Inhalation is the most important route of occupational exposure.[1] CAREX Canada estimates that approximately 3,900 Canadians are exposed to beryllium in their workplace. The largest industrial groups exposed are building equipment contractors and manufacturers of medical equipment and supplies.


Other important industries where beryllium exposure occurs are residential building construction and automotive parts manufacturing and repair. The primary occupational groups exposed are construction trades helpers, welders, electricians, and dental technologists. Additional groups that may also be exposed include workers involved in beryllium alloy production, metals and related products manufacturing, nuclear reactor operation, and electric and electronic equipment production.

Although only a small number of workers are exposed to high levels worldwide, the number of workers exposed to low levels is increasing.[2] This increase is due to increased use of beryllium in the aircraft, aerospace, nuclear, and electronics industries.[2]

Prevalence Estimate

Results show that nearly 3,900 Canadians are exposed to beryllium in their workplaces; 86% of these workers are male. The largest industrial groups exposed are building equipment contractors, medical equipment and supplies manufacturing, and residential building construction.

When beryllium exposure is examined by occupation, the largest exposed groups are construction trades helpers, welders, electricians, and dental technologists.

Workers exposed to beryllium by industry

Workers exposed to beryllium by region

Click the second tab to view total number of workers exposed.

* = < 50 workers
Methods and Data

Our Occupational Approach page outlines the general approach used to calculate prevalence and exposure level estimates for workplace exposures.

Data Sources

Data used in developing the occupational estimates for beryllium were collected from several sources:

  1. The Canadian Workplace Exposure Database (CWED) contains approximately 500 measurements for beryllium exposure. These measurements were collected during the years 1981 to 2004 in Ontario and British Columbia workplaces.
  2. Canadian and US scientific peer reviewed publications that addressed beryllium exposure in Canada and the United States.
  3. Grey literature including technical reports from governments and international bodies.


Prevalence Estimate Method

CAREX defines exposure to beryllium as inhalation and/or dermal exposure at work (it is rare to encounter any measurable levels of beryllium in the general environment).

To determine the number of workers potentially exposed to beryllium at work, CAREX occupational exposure experts used methods previously established in other peer-reviewed CAREX projects in Europe. A series of steps were taken to assign exposure proportions to occupations and industries at risk of exposure to beryllium.

  1. Occupations and industries at risk of possible exposure to beryllium were identified using any combination of data sources described above.
  2. The total number of workers in each identified occupation and industry intersection was obtained from Statistics Canada 2006 census data.
  3. A percentage of workers exposed was assigned to that occupation and industry intersection. Percentages were determined by consultation with existing evidence in the data sources, previously established methods from the Europe CAREX estimates and the expert judgement of CAREX occupational hygienists.
  4. The number of workers in the identified group is multiplied by the assigned percentage to calculate the prevalence estimate of workers exposed to beryllium.

1. National Toxicology Program (NTP). 14th report on carcinogens for Beryllium and Beryllium Compounds (2016) (PDF)
2. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Monograph summary, Volume 58 (1993) (PDF)

Subscribe to our newsletters

The CAREX Canada team offers two regular newsletters: the biannual e-Bulletin summarizing information on upcoming webinars, new publications, and updates to estimates and tools; and the monthly Carcinogens in the News, a digest of media articles, government reports, and academic literature related to the carcinogens we’ve classified as important for surveillance in Canada. Sign up for one or both of these newsletters below.

CAREX Canada

Faculty of Health Sciences

Simon Fraser University
Harbour Centre Campus
2602 - 515 West Hastings St
Vancouver, BC  V6B 5K3

© 2021 CAREX Canada