Acrylamide Profile

Acrylamide Profile

General Information

Acrylamide is a colourless or white crystalline powder.[1] Since it was first synthesized in 1949, acrylamide has been used as an intermediary in producing polyacrylamide and acrylamide copolymers.[2] Polymerized acrylamide is not toxic, but acrylamide monomer is, and can remain as a contaminant in the polymers.[1] Acrylamide may also be referred to as 2-propenamide or acrylic acid amide.[3] There are numerous other synonyms and product names; see the Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB) for more information.[3]

Acrylamide has been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as Group 2A, probably carcinogenic to humans.[4] The evaluation was based on evidence in animals and additional mechanistic data, as neither of the two available studies of workers exposed to acrylamide provided sufficient data on carcinogenicity in humans.[4] Ingesting acrylamide caused cancers at a variety of sites in rats, including the thyroid and testis region, mammary gland, thyroid, central nervous system, oral cavity, and uterus.[4] Other studies showed increases in lung tumours and skin cancer in mice.[4]

Additionally, acrylamide can cause damage to the central and peripheral nervous systems[4] and contact dermatitis.[5]

Regulations and Guidelines

Occupational exposure limits (OEL) [6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20]

Canadian JurisdictionsOEL (mg/m3)
Canada Labour Code0.03 [i, v, sk, dsen]
BC, MB, ON, NL, PE, NS0.03 [i, v, sk, dsen]
AB, NB0.03 [sk]
QC0.03 [sk, em]
SK, NT, NU0.03 [i, v, sk]
0.09 [stel]
YT0.3 [sk]
0.6 [stel]
Other JurisdictionOEL (mg/m3)
ACGIH 2020 TLV0.03 [i, v, sk, dsen]
mg/m3 = milligrams per cubic meter
i = inhalable fraction
v = vapour
sk = easily absorbed through the skin
em = exposure must be reduced to the minimum
dsen = dermal sensitization
stel = short term exposure limit (15 min. maximum)
ACGIH = American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists
TLV = threshold limit value

Canadian environmental guidelines and standards*

JurisdictionLimitYear
Cosmetic HotlistNot permitted2011[21]
Ontario Ambient Air Quality Criteria24 hour: 15 μg/m32016[22]
Ontario’s Air Pollution – Local Air Quality Regulation standards24-hour standard: 15 µg/m3; Prohibited discharge into the air if the concentration of acrylamide exceeds the standard2016[23]
BC’s Contaminated Sites Regulation, BC Reg 375/96Sets soil standards for the protection of human health:
Agricultural and low density residential sites: 3 μg/g
Urban park and high density residential sites: 6 μg/g
Commercial and industrial sites: 65 μg/gDrinking water: 0.1 μg/L
2017[24]
* Standards are legislated and legally enforceable, while guidelines (including Ontario ambient air quality criteria) describe concentrations of contaminants in the environment (e.g. air, water) that are protective against adverse health, environmental, or aesthetic (e.g. odour) effects
μg/g = micrograms per gram
μg/L = micrograms per litre

Canadian agencies/organizations

AgencyDesignation/PositionYear
Health CanadaDSL – high priority substance with the greatest potential for exposure2006[25]
Challenge to IndustryBatch 5 (as 2-propenamide)2008[26]
Environment Canada’s National Pollutant Release InventoryReportable to NPRI if manufactured, processed, or otherwise used at quantities greater than 10 tonnes2016[27]
CEPA List of Toxic SubstancesSchedule 1 (paragraph c, as 2-propenamide)2010[28]
DSL = domestic substance list

Acrylamide was not included in other Canadian government guidelines, standards, or chemical listings reviewed.

Main Uses

Acrylamide is used primarily to produce polymers (polyacrylamides), which have many industrial uses. For example, grout, used in the mining industry and to seal sewer lines and manholes;[29] and flocculants, used in water treatment, crude oil processing, pulp and paper processing, soil conditioning/stabilization, mineral processing, and concrete processing.[5,29]

Smaller quantities are used in laboratories for electrophoresis gels, in permanent-press fabrics, adhesive manufacturing, and food processing[5,29]

Canadian Production and Trade

Between 1 million and 10 million kilograms of acrylamide were imported into Canada in 2006. Between 100 and 1000 kilograms were manufactured in Canada.[30]

In 1998, three Canadian companies were producing a total of 7,000 tonnes of polyacrylamide.[31] Available data indicates that imports from US producers supply much of the Canadian market for polyacrylamide.[31]

None of ‘acrylamide,’ ‘2-propenamide,’ or ‘polyacrylamide’ were included in the TradeMap database for Canada between 2001 and 2011.[32]

Environmental Exposures Overview

The main sources of environmental exposure to acrylamide are food and cigarette smoke. People may also be exposed at lower levels via drinking water and in consumer products (where residual acrylamide can be found).[2,33]

Acrylamide in food was first discovered in a 2002 study by the Swedish National Food Administration. In 2009, Health Canada initiated an acrylamide monitoring program, in which a number of food products from various brand names were tested for acrylamide.[34] Health Canada continues to monitor of acrylamide levels as part of their Food Safety Action Plan (FSAP).[35]

Acrylamide is formed in many types of foods during cooking, especially carbohydrate-rich foods.[36] In Canada, potato chips and french fries contain the highest levels of acrylamide.[37,38] Health Canada estimates that Canadians are exposed to between 0.157-0.609 µg/kg/day of acrylamide, with children (aged 1-8) ingesting higher amounts on a body weight basis than other groups.[38] To reduce the amount of acrylamide in foods, Health Canada amended the Food and Drug Regulations in 2012 to allow an enzyme in specific food products, which reduces the amount of acrylamide produced during the cooking process.[38] Health Canada encourages Canadian food companies to further adopt ways to decrease the level of acrylamide in food.[36,38]

Cigarette smoke also contains acrylamide, creating a source of exposure to smokers as well as those exposed to Second Hand Smoke.[39]

As of 2001, polyacrylamide was used in about 100 cosmetic formulations (at concentrations of up to 2.8%). Acrylamide monomer can remain as a contaminant in polyacrylamide (concentrations from < 0.01% to 0.1%).[40]

Acrylamide is not expected to remain in the air if released industrially; it will likely partition to water and soil.[36]

Searches of Environment Canada’s National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) and the US Household Products Database yielded the following results on current potential for exposure to acrylamide in Canada:

NPRI and US Household Products Database

NPRI 2015[41]
Substance name: ‘Acrylamide’
CategoryQuantityIndustry
Released into EnvironmentNoneBasic chemical manufacturing;
Other chemical product manufacturing
Paint, coating and adhesive manufacturing
(4 facilities)
Disposed of0.04 t
Sent to off-site recyclingNone
US Household Products 2016[42]
Search TermQuantityProduct Type
‘Acrylamide’6Odor neutralizers(4), adhesive(1), sealant(1)
‘Polyacrylamide’50Cosmetic creams, moisturizers, soaps,
hair conditioners, air fresheners,
fabric conditioners and glues
t = tonne

Occupational Exposures Overview

Inhalation and dermal contact are the most important routes of occupational exposure.[1]

CAREX Canada estimates that 9,300 Canadians are exposed to acrylamide in the workplace. The main industries exposed are foundation, structure, and building exterior contractors. The occupations with the most workers exposed are construction trade helpers and labourers, followed by concrete finishers and mineral and metal processing labourers.

Other sources of occupational exposure may occur in pulp and paper manufacturing, oil drilling, textile and cosmetics manufacturing, food processing, plastics manufacturing, mining, and agricultural industries.[3] People working in labs where polyacrylamide gels are prepared may also be exposed.[4]

Some occupational exposure measurements (including dermal measurements) and task-related information are available in a risk assessment from the EU.[29]

For more information, see the occupational exposure estimate for acrylamide.

Sources

1. National Toxicology Program (NTP). 14th report on carcinogens for acrylamide (2016) (PDF)
2. National Cancer Institute. Factsheet: Acrylamide in Food and Cancer Risk (2008)
3. US National Library of Medicine. Household Products Database (US) Hazardous Substances Database(HSDB) entry for Acrylamide (Search term: ‘acrylamide’)
4. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Monograph summary, Volume 60 (1994) (PDF)
5. Environment Canada and Health Canada. IPCS: International Programme on Chemical Safety: Acrylamide (2000)
11. Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. Regulation 5,12 Occupational Health and Safety Regulations (2018)
12. Government of the Northwest Territories. Occupational Health and Safety Regulations, R-039-2015 (2020) (PDF)
14. The Canadian Legal Information Institute (CanLII). Government of Nunavut’s Occupational Health and Safety Regulations, Nu Reg 003-2016 (2010)
16. Government of Prince Edward Island. Occupational Health and Safety Act Regulations Chapter 0-1 (2013) (PDF)
18. Government of Saskatchewan. The Occupational Health and Safety Regulations, 1996 (2016) (PDF)
19. The Canadian Legal Information Institute (CanLII). Yukon’s Occupational Health Regulations, O.I.C. 1986/164 (2020) (PDF)
20. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Annotated PELs (2020)
21. Health Canada. Cosmetic Ingredient Hotlist (2019)
22. Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change. Ontario’s Ambient Air Quality Criteria (2019)
24. Government of British Columbia. Contaminated Sites Regulation B.C. Reg. 375/96 (2019)
25. Health Canada. Prioritization of the DSL (2006)
28. Environment and Climate Change Canada. CEPA List of Toxic Substances (2020)
29. European Commission. EU Risk Assessment: Acrylamide (2002) (PDF)
31. Camford Information Services. CPI Product Profiles: Polyacrylamides (1998)
32. International Trade Centre. TradeMap (Free subscription required)
33. Environment and Climate Change Canada. Proposed Risk Management Approach from 2-Propenamide (Acrylamide) (2009)
35. Canadian Food Inspection Agency. 2011-2013 Acrylamide in Selected Foods (2016)
36. Food & Consumer Products of Canada. Acrylamide (2016).
37. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Survey Data on Acrylamide in Food: Individual Food Products (2006)
38. Environment and Climate Change Canada. Proposed Risk Management Approach from 2-Propenamide (Acrylamide) (2009)
40. Cosmetic Ingredient Review Panel. “Amended final report on the safety assessment of polyacrylamide and acrylamide residues in cosmetics.” Intern Journ of Toxic 2005;24(Suppl 2): 21-50.
41. Environment and Climate Change Canada. National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) Facility Search (Substance name: ‘Acrylamide’)
42. US Household Products Database (HPD). Household Products (Search term: ‘Acrylamide’)

     

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