UV Radiation, Artificial
Results show that approximately 141,000 Canadians are potentially exposed to artificial UV radiation at work; 78% of these workers are male. The largest industrial groups exposed are commercial and industrial machinery repair (where many welders are captured) and Personal care services, where tanning salons are captured, in addition to nail salons (where artificial UV radiation is used in the curing of fingernail gels).
The largest occupational groups exposed are welders (87,000 workers), medical laboratory technologists and pathologists' assistants (6,400), and sheet metal workers (exposed via welding or proximity to welding, n=5,300). The majority of workers in welding are male (96%), while a larger proportion of those in tanning salons and hospitals are female (87% and 83%, respectively).
Level of Exposure
In total, approximately 141,000 Canadians are exposed to artificial UV radiation in their workplaces. The majority of workers exposed to artificial UV radiation are in the moderate and high exposure categories.
Level of Exposure by Industry
Identifying industries with either 1) workers exposed to high levels of artificial UV radiation or 2) a larger number of workers exposed to artificial UVR is important in guiding cancer prevention efforts to prioritize exposed groups and target resources most effectively.
The table below shows the number of workers exposed by industry group and level of exposure to artificial UV radiation. These results highlight industries with the most number of workers, as well as industries with the highest levels of exposure. Data for those industries with at least 2,000 workers exposed is shown.
For example, in the largest exposed industry (Repair and Maintenance), the majority (85%) of workers are exposed via welding and are in the highest category of exposure. However, in the personal services industry (where tanning salons are located), all of the exposed workers are in the low exposure category. Depending on the goals of a prevention campaign, exposure reduction in the large industrial group might be a useful strategy, or reducing exposure to those at highest risk of exposure could be seen as a priority.
|Low Exposure (n)||Moderate Exposure (n)||High Exposure (n)||Total Workers Exposed (n)|
|811: Repair and maintenance||2,500||1,100||19,700||23,000|
|332: Fabricated metal product manufacturing||0||4,200||16,000||20,000|
|812: Personal and Laundry Services||13,000||0||0||13,000|
|336: Transportation equipment manufacturing||0||1,200||10,000||11,000|
|333: Machinery manufacturing||0||1,400||9,300||11,000|
|238: Specialty Trade Contractors||0||4,100||4,200||8,300|
|541: Professional, Scientific and Technical Services||800||4,900||600||6,300|
|331: Primary Metal Manufacturing||0||1,000||2,500||3,500|
|236: Construction of Buildings||0||1,000||1,700||2,700|
|213: Support Activities for Mining and Oil and Gas Extraction||0||200||2,100||2,300|
|237: Heavy and Civil Engineering Construction||1,900||0||200||2,100|
Data Sources & Methods
Data used in developing the occupational estimates for artificial UV radiation were collected from several sources:
- Canadian and US scientific peer reviewed publications that addressed artificial UV radiation exposure in Canada and the United States.
- Grey literature including technical reports from governments and international bodies.
Prevalence Estimate Method
Exposure to artificial UV radiation is defined broadly as physical exposure at work to radiation in the range of 100 to 400 nm (i.e. the whole UV spectrum, including A, B, and C wavelengths) likely to exceed non-occupational exposure. It does not include UV radiation exposure from the sun (solar UV radiation). Solar UV radiation exposure has been addressed by CAREX Canada and more information is available on the CAREX Canada website.
To determine the number of workers potentially exposed to artificial UV radiation at work, CAREX occupational exposure experts used methods previously established in other peer-reviewed CAREX projects in Europe. A series of steps were taken to assign exposure proportions to occupations and industries at risk of exposure to artificial UV radiation.
- Occupations and industries at risk of possible exposure to artificial UV radiation were identified using any combination of data sources described above.
- The total number of workers in each identified occupation and industry intersection was obtained from Statistics Canada 2006 census data.
- A percentage of workers exposed was assigned to that occupation and industry intersection. Percentages were determined by consultation with existing evidence in the data sources, previously established methods from the Europe CAREX estimates and the expert judgement of CAREX occupational hygienists.
- The number of workers in the identified group is multiplied by the assigned percentage to calculate the prevalence estimate of workers exposed to artificial UV radiation.
Exposure Level Method
To develop estimates of the levels of artificial UV exposure, we used a report by the International Commission of Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP)1. This report classified exposure to artificial UV radiation into categories of low, medium, high, and very high with respect to the potential for overexposure. The only source classified with a low potential was exposure to general lighting, which we do not include as exposed in our definition of occupational exposure. Therefore, we defined our exposure groups based on their medium, high, and very high potential for overexposure categories:
Category 1: Low Exposure
A group of workers (people in the same job category) is put in this category if the ICNIRP found that there was a medium potential for overexposure.
Category 2: Moderate Exposure
A group of workers (people in the same job category) is put in this category if the ICNIRP found that there was a high potential for overexposure.
Category 3: High Exposure
A group of workers (people in the same job category) is put in this category if the ICNIRP found that there was a very high potential for overexposure.
1. International Commission of Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP): Protecting Workers from Ultraviolet Radiation. (2007). Link