Results show that nearly 10,000 Canadians are exposed to antimony trioxide in their workplaces; 79% of these workers are male. The largest industrial groups exposed are public administration (where police officers are captured), glass and glass products manufacturing, textile product mills, and plastic product manufacturing.
When exposure is examined by occupation, the largest exposed groups are police officers (exposed in firing ranges) and welders, however their exposures are expected to be low. Other important jobs are artisans, workers in textile processing, and glass forming.
Data Sources & Methods
Data used in developing the occupational estimates for antimony trioxide were collected from several sources:
- The Canadian Workplace Exposure Database (CWED) contains over 600 measurements for antimony trioxide exposure. These measurements were collected during the years 1981 to 2004 in Ontario and British Columbia workplaces.
- Canadian and US scientific peer reviewed publications that addressed antimony trioxide exposure in Canada and the United States.
- Grey literature including technical reports from governments and international bodies.
Prevalence Estimate Method
CAREX defines exposure to antimony trioxide as inhalation and/or dermal exposure at work to levels above those encountered in the general environment.
To determine the number of workers potentially exposed to antimony trioxide at work, CAREX occupational exposure experts used methods previously established in other peer-reviewed CAREX projects in Europe. A series of steps were taken to assign exposure proportions to occupations and industries at risk of exposure to antimony trioxide.
- Occupations and industries at risk of possible exposure to antimony trioxide were identified using any combination of data sources described above.
- The total number of workers in each identified occupation and industry intersection was obtained from Statistics Canada 2006 census data.
- A percentage of workers exposed was assigned to that occupation and industry intersection. Percentages were determined by consultation with existing evidence in the data sources, previously established methods from the Europe CAREX estimates and the expert judgement of CAREX occupational hygienists.
- The number of workers in the identified group is multiplied by the assigned percentage to calculate the prevalence estimate of workers exposed to antimony trioxide.